DNA tags enable blood-based tests to assess cancer treatment outcomes

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) shed into the blood was discovered in the late 1940s but with rapid advances in genomics and computational analytics in just the past few years, researchers now believe that studying tags, or modifications to this type of DNA, may lead to a better understanding of how to assess, and possibly modulate, treatment approaches for cancer and other diseases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New organ-on-a-chip finds crucial interaction between blood, ovarian cancer tumors

Researchers are pushing organ-on-a-chip devices to new levels that could change the way clinicians approach cancer treatment, particularly ovarian cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Research provides insights into high-risk younger demographics for severe COVID-19

Using data from 9,859 COVID-19 infections, researchers have new insights into risk factors for younger populations, some of which differ significantly from their older counterparts. People younger than 45 had a greater than threefold increased risk of severe infection if they had cancer or heart disease, or blood, neurologic or endocrine disorders, the research found. These associations were weaker in older age groups.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Sensing ‘junk’ RNA after chemotherapy enhances blood regeneration

Scientists reveal that during hematopoietic regeneration, RNA expressed from a part of the genome considered ‘junk DNA’ is used by hematopoietic stem cells to get activated and proliferate. The study shows that these so-called transposable elements make RNA after chemotherapy and activate an immune receptor which induces inflammatory signals enhancing hematopoietic stem cell cycling and thus participating in the regeneration of the hematopoietic system.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Hitting the right note in dialysis care

Patients with malfunctioning kidneys often need dialysis to rid their blood of unwanted molecules and excess water. Personalising the settings of dialysis for each patient is crucial for their health, but it is complicated and error-prone. A group of Viennese scientists was awarded a competitive grant from the Vienna Science and Technology Fund to develop a precision medicine approach to dialysis treatment.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Novel microscopy method provides look into future of cell biology

What if a microscope allowed us to explore the 3D microcosm of blood vessels, nerves, and cancer cells instantaneously in virtual reality? What if it could provide views from multiple directions in real time without physically moving the specimen and worked up to 100 times faster than current technology?

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Microfilter device capable of detecting trace amounts of cancer cells in one mL of blood

Researchers have developed a microfilter device that can easily separate and capture trace amounts of cancer cells in blood. The palm-sized device is expected to contribute to the development of new cancer diagnostic technologies based on cancer cells in the blood, such as early detection by blood test, postoperative management, and recurrence monitoring.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Blood stem cells make brain tumors more aggressive

Scientists have discovered stem cells of the hematopoietic system in glioblastomas, the most aggressive form of brain tumor. These hematopoietic stem cells promote division of the cancer cells and at the same time suppress the immune response against the tumor. This surprising discovery might open up new possibilities for developing more effective immunotherapies against these malignant brain tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Inherited risk of early-onset cancer is higher among minority families

A new study shows inherited risk of early-onset cancer is significantly higher among Latino and African American families for solid tumors, and Asian/Pacific Islander families for blood-based cancers, compared to non-Latino white families in California. Researchers used California population-based health registries to evaluate the relative cancer risk among first-degree relatives of patients diagnosed with cancer by the age of 26. This study demonstrates the need for increased scrutiny on familial cancer clustering in minority populations.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Blood cancer patients with COVID-19 fare better with convalescent plasma

A new study finds that convalescent plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients can dramatically improve likelihood of survival among blood cancer patients hospitalized with the virus. The therapy involves transfusing plasma from people who have recovered from COVID-19 into patients who have leukemia, lymphoma or other blood cancers and are hospitalized with the viral infection.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How a corona infection changes blood cells in the long run

Using real-time deformability cytometry, researchers at the Max-Planck-Zentrum für Physik und Medizin in Erlangen were able to show for the first time: Covid-19 significantly changes the size and stiffness of red and white blood cells – sometimes over months. These results may help to explain why some affected people continue to complain of symptoms long after an infection (long covid).

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Study confirms safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in people with cancer

In a review of 200 patients with a wide spectrum of cancer diagnoses, researchers found that after full vaccination, 94 percent of patients overall demonstrated seroconversion, which was determined by the presence of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Response rates were very high among patients with solid tumors and were lower in people with certain blood cancers, but even the majority of those patients mounted an immune response.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Nose2Brain – Active substances without detour through the nose into the brain

Effective drugs for the treatment of diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, do exist. However, the blood-brain barrier, which protects the brain as the body’s control center, makes it especially difficult for therapeutic biomolecules to pass through. Thus, researchers from an international consortium coordinated by the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB have spent the last four and a half years developing a novel system in the EU project “N2B-patch” that can be used to bypass this barrier. The new approaches will be presented at a virtual international final symposium on June 17, 2021.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Weltblutspendetag am 14. Juni: BZgA ruft zu Blut- und Plasmaspenden auf

Köln, 08. Juni 2021. Zum Weltblutspendetag am 14. Juni 2021 ruft die Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (BZgA) gemeinsam mit Blutspendeeinrichtungen bundesweit dazu auf, Blut und Plasma zu spenden. Der Weltblutspendetag steht in diesem Jahr unter dem Motto „Give blood and keep the world beating“ („Spende Blut und halte die Welt am Laufen“), um das Bewusstsein für den Bedarf an Blut und Blutprodukten auch in Pandemiezeiten zu stärken. Gerade im Zusammenhang mit der Verbreitung des Coronavirus und der damit verbundenen Sorge vor Infektionen, haben Blutspenden noch mehr an Bedeutung gewonnen. Dabei können Spendewillige ohne Krankheitssymptome wie bisher Blut und Plasma spenden.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

‘Electronic nose’ accurately sniffs out hard-to-detect cancers

An odor-based test that sniffs out vapors emanating from blood samples was able to distinguish between benign and pancreatic and ovarian cancer cells with up to 95% accuracy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

When cancer cells ‘put all their eggs in one basket’

Normal cells usually have multiple solutions for fixing problems that may arise. But cancer cells may ‘put all their eggs in one basket,’ getting rid of all backup plans and depending on just one solution. Researchers discovered that a particular type of blood cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, came to depend on a single DNA repair method. They developed a drug that shut down the remaining pathway in lab-grown cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cholesterol Levels Sustainably Lowered Using Base Editing

Base editing is a novel gene editing approach that can precisely change individual building blocks in a DNA sequence. By installing such a point mutation in a specific gene, an international research team led by the University of Zurich has succeeded in sustainably lowering high LDL cholesterol levels in the blood of mice and macaques. This opens up the possibility of curing patients with inherited metabolic liver diseases.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Screening for ovarian cancer did not reduce early deaths

The latest analysis looked at data from more than 200,000 women aged 50-74 at recruitment who were followed up for an average of 16 years. The women were randomly allocated to one of three groups: no screening, annual screening using an ultrasound scan, and annual multimodal screening involving a blood test followed by an ultrasound scan as a second line test.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Breaching the blood-brain barrier to deliver precious payloads

RNA-based drugs may change the standard of care for many diseases, making personalized medicine a reality. So far these cost-effective, easy-to-manufacture drugs haven’t been very useful in treating brain tumors and other brain disease. But a team has shown that a combination of ultrasound and RNA-loaded nanoparticles can temporarily open the protective blood-brain barrier, allowing the delivery of potent medicine to brain tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Hopkins-led research team takes gene mutation detection in blood to the next level

Researchers have developed a new technology to overcome the inefficiencies and high error rates common among next-generation sequencing techniques that have previously limited their clinical application.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The micro-environment of breast cancer in three dimensions

Cancerous tumors thrive on blood, extending their roots deep into the fabric of the tissue of their host. They alter the genetics of surrounding cells and evolve to avoid the protective attacks of immune cells. Now, researchers have developed a way to study the relationship between solid, difficult-to-treat tumors and the microenvironment they create to support their growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New genetic target for blood cancer treatment

Researchers have identified a vulnerability in some cases of acute myeloid leukaemia that could be harnessed for targeted treatment of these poor-prognosis cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Artificial intelligence model predicts which key of the immune system opens the locks of coronavirus

A new artificial intelligence (AI) method is helping researchers link immune cells to their targets and, for example, uncouple which white blood cells recognize SARS-CoV-2. The tool has broad applications in understanding the function of the immune system in infections, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists discover ‘jumping’ genes that can protect against blood cancers

New research has uncovered a surprising role for so-called ‘jumping’ genes that are a source of genetic mutations responsible for a number of human diseases. Scientists made the unexpected discovery that these DNA sequences, also known as transposons, can protect against certain blood cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Protein that blocks body’s ability to clear bad cholesterol identified

Researchers have uncovered a long-sought link in the battle to control cholesterol and heart disease. The protein that interferes with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors that clear ‘bad’ cholesterol from the blood was identified. Excess LDL cholesterol can lead to atherosclerosis — a narrowing and hardening of arteries — and ultimately, heart attack.

Quelle: Sciencedaily