Magnesium is essential for the immune system, including in the fight against cancer

The level of magnesium in the blood is an important factor in the immune system’s ability to tackle pathogens and cancer cells. Researchers have reported that T cells need a sufficient quantity of magnesium in order to operate efficiently. Their findings may have important implications for cancer patients.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Obscure protein is spotlighted in fight against leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of white blood cells. Researchers discovered that AML cancer cells depend on a protein called SCP4 to survive. They think the previously little-known protein is involved in a metabolic pathway the cancer cells need to survive. SCP4 provides researchers with a potential new therapeutic approach for this aggressive cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New graft strategy may improve outcomes for blood stem cell recipients

Removing one type of T cell from donor blood used for stem cell grafts could greatly reduce a serious complication called graft-versus-host disease in patients with leukemia, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

First time genome editing made possible on cells lining blood vessel walls

Researchers have developed a unique nanoparticle to deliver genome editing technology, including CRISPR/Cas9, to endothelial cells, which are cells that line blood vessel walls. This is the first time that vascular endothelial cells could be reached for genome editing, since the usual way to deliver CRISPR/Cas9 — through a virus — does not work for this cell type.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The fatal role of T cells in COVID-19

Scientists from the Berlin Institute of Health at Charité (BIH), together with colleagues from Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the university hospitals in Bonn and Aachen, have found a type of immune cells that is particularly active in severely ill COVID-19 patients. The CD16 positive T cells have an increased cytotoxic effect, especially on the inner cell layer of blood vessels. Their presence, along with complement system factors, is associated with a highly fatal outcome of the disease. The scientists have just published their findings in the scientific journal Cell.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Tissue donation figures 2021 – DGFG expands tissue donation despite Corona

Despite the Corona pandemic, the German Society for Tissue Transplantation (DGFG) has once again succeeded in further expanding tissue donation and supplying more patients with corneas, heart valves, blood vessels and amniotic membranes: with the help of the total of 2,897 tissue donations realized, the DGFG was able to provide more than 7,000 patients with a tissue transplant last year, including 4,145 with a cornea. This means that DGFG more than doubled the number of tissues donated for transplantation in the past ten years (2011: 3,143 tissues donated). The pandemic is also apparently ensuring a high level of solidarity among the population: 42 percent agreed to donate tissue.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Scientists retool CAR T cells to serve as ‘micropharmacies’ for cancer drugs

Immunotherapies called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells use genetically engineered versions of a patient’s own immune cells to fight cancer. These treatments have energized cancer care, especially for people with certain types of blood cancers. Now, scientists have developed new CAR T cells that can do something their predecessors cannot: Make drugs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Study confirms nutrient’s role in childhood blood cancer

A molecular building block of many animal proteins, the amino acid valine, plays a key role in cancerous growth seen in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a new study shows.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

People with High-Risk Prediabetes Benefit from Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

Intensive lifestyle intervention with plenty of exercise helps people with prediabetes improve their blood glucose levels over a period of years and thus delay or even prevent type 2 diabetes. In particular, individuals with prediabetes at highest risk benefited from intensive lifestyle intervention. This is shown by the evaluation of the Prediabetes Lifestyle Intervention Study (PLIS) of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), which was conducted at 8 sites of the center throughout Germany. The results have been published in the journal ‘Diabetes’.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Cannabis use could cause harmful drug interactions

Using cannabis alongside other drugs may come with a significant risk of harmful drug-drug interactions, new research suggests. The researchers looked at cannabinoids–a group of substances found in the cannabis plant — and their major metabolites found in cannabis users‘ blood and found that they interfere with two families of enzymes that help metabolize a wide range of drugs prescribed for a variety of conditions. As a result, either the drugs‘ positive effects might decrease or their negative effects might increase with too much building up in the body, causing unintended side effects such as toxicity or accidental overdose. While more research needs to be done, the authors said one early takeaway from these studies is that it’s important to be careful when using cannabis with other prescription drugs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Research reveals how aging cells can be an underlying cause of kidney damage

A study in mice has found that stress and tissue damage initiated by angiotensin II, a molecule that is known to increase blood pressure and stiffening in the linings of blood vessels, leads to cellular senescence, a process by which a cell ages and permanently stops dividing but does not die. Importantly, when the researchers eliminated senescent cells from the mice, tissues returned to a normal state in spite of a continued infusion of angiotensin II.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

For stem cells, bigger doesn’t mean better

A new study suggests that enlargement of stem cells contributes to age-related decline in function. The researchers found that blood stem cells, which are among the smallest cells in the body, lose their ability to perform their normal function — replenishing the body’s blood cells — as they grow larger. When the cells were restored to their usual size, they behaved normally again.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Team engineers new way to get medication past blood-brain barrier

A team of researchers has developed a new technique to open the blood-brain barrier temporarily to deliver medication to the brain. Getting medication past the brain’s unique and protective blood vessels, known as the blood-brain barrier, is one of the biggest challenges in treating brain and central nervous system diseases, according to researchers. The technique uses light and nanoparticles to pry open temporarily these barriers — called tight junctions — to allow medication to reach its target.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Noninvasive brain biopsy shows improved sensitivity in tumor detection

A team of researchers has developed a noninvasive diagnostic method that may one day replace the biopsy with a simple blood test.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Landmark study points to source of rapid aging, chronic inflammation in people living with HIV

In a groundbreaking study of people living with HIV, researchers found that elusive white blood cells called neutrophils play a role in impaired T cell functions and counts, as well as the associated chronic inflammation that is common with the virus.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Plasticizers can cause asthma and allergies

Study at Furtwangen University shows how blood formation in the bone marrow is affected

The plasticizer DEHP has long been associated with the development of asthma. Until now, what was known is that the plasticizer increases allergic reaction in the lungs. Researchers at Furtwangen University have now found that DEHP also affects the blood formation of stem cells in the bone marrow, in what are known as hematopoietic stem cells.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Chemo helps breast cancer cells get their ‘foot in the door’ to the lungs

A new study adds to the evidence that chemotherapy enhances cancer’s spread beyond the primary tumor, showing how one chemo drug allows breast cancer cells to squeeze through and attach to blood vessel linings in the lungs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Filling the gap: connecting genes to diseases through proteins

Hundreds of connections between different human diseases have been uncovered through their shared origin in our genome by an international research team led by scientists at the Berlin Institute of Health at Charité (BIH) and the University of Cambridge, challenging the categorisation of diseases by organ, symptoms, or clinical speciality. A new study published in Science today generated data on thousands of proteins circulating in our blood and combined this with genetic data to produce a map showing how genetic differences that affect these proteins link together seemingly diverse as well as related diseases.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Researchers identify new drug target for blood cancer, potentially solid tumors

Researchers have shown for the first time how mutations affecting a cellular process called RNA splicing alter cells to develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer chemotherapy drug reverses Alzheimer’s symptoms in mice

A drug commonly used to treat cancer can restore memory and cognitive function in mice that display symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, new research has found. The drug, Axitinib, inhibits growth of new blood vessels in the brain — a feature shared by both cancer tumors and Alzheimer’s disease. This hallmark represents a new target for Alzheimer’s therapies. Mice that underwent the therapy not only exhibited a reduction in blood vessels and other Alzheimer’s markers in their brains, they also performed remarkably well in tests designed to measure learning and memory.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Detecting dementia in the blood

Empa researcher Peter Nirmalraj wants to image proteins with unprecedented precision – and thus gain insights into the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s. This should pave the way for an earlier diagnosis of the dementia disorder via a simple blood test. Together with neurologists from the Kantonsspital St.Gallen, a successful pilot study has now been completed.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Novel assay finds new mechanism underlying red blood cell aging

A multifaceted microfluidic in vitro assay is helping to identify the role of hypoxia on red blood cell aging via the biomechanical pathways. It holds promise for investigating hypoxic effects on the metastatic potential and relevant drug resistance of cancer cells. It also can be a useful tool to predict the mechanical performance of natural and artificial red blood cells for transfusion purposes and to further extend to red blood cells in other blood diseases and other cell types.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Warum ein mutierter Kaliumkanal in roten Blutzellen zur Blutarmut führen kann

Eine Variante der Blutarmut (Anämie) ist die so genannte Gárdos Channelopathy, eine durch Genmutation ausgelöste Fehlfunktion so genannter Gárdos-Kanäle. Durch diese gelangen Kalium-Ionen aus den roten Blutzellen hinaus. Ist die Funktion der Kanäle gestört, wirkt sich das auch auf die Calcium-Konzentration der Zellen aus. Mit schwerwiegenden Folgen: Zu viel Calcium lässt die Zelle sterben. In der Folge kommt es dann zur Anämie. Forscher der Saar-Uni haben den Zusammenhang zwischen Kalium- und Calciumströmen bei dieser genetischen Mutation nun untersucht und im Fachjournal Blood Advances veröffentlicht.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Metabolic changes in plasma and immune cells associated with COVID-19 severity, can predict patient survival

After examining the blood samples from nearly 200 COVID-19 patients, researchers have uncovered underlying metabolic changes that regulate how immune cells react to the disease. These changes are associated with disease severity and could be used to predict patient survival.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Programming synthetic exosomes to optimize wound healing

Scientists from the MPI for Medical Research and colleagues have engineered synthetic exosomes that regulate cellular signaling during wound closure. The synthetic structures resemble naturally occurring extracellular vesicles (EV) that play a fundamental role in communication between cells. The scientist uncovered key mechanisms to regulate and aid wound healing and the formation of new blood vessels. Inspired by the function of their natural blue prints, the scientists successfully demonstrate for the first time that fully-synthetic exosomes with therapeutic functionality can be constructed. The results were recently published in Science Advances.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft