Filling the gap: connecting genes to diseases through proteins

Hundreds of connections between different human diseases have been uncovered through their shared origin in our genome by an international research team led by scientists at the Berlin Institute of Health at Charité (BIH) and the University of Cambridge, challenging the categorisation of diseases by organ, symptoms, or clinical speciality. A new study published in Science today generated data on thousands of proteins circulating in our blood and combined this with genetic data to produce a map showing how genetic differences that affect these proteins link together seemingly diverse as well as related diseases.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Researchers identify new drug target for blood cancer, potentially solid tumors

Researchers have shown for the first time how mutations affecting a cellular process called RNA splicing alter cells to develop myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer chemotherapy drug reverses Alzheimer’s symptoms in mice

A drug commonly used to treat cancer can restore memory and cognitive function in mice that display symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, new research has found. The drug, Axitinib, inhibits growth of new blood vessels in the brain — a feature shared by both cancer tumors and Alzheimer’s disease. This hallmark represents a new target for Alzheimer’s therapies. Mice that underwent the therapy not only exhibited a reduction in blood vessels and other Alzheimer’s markers in their brains, they also performed remarkably well in tests designed to measure learning and memory.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Detecting dementia in the blood

Empa researcher Peter Nirmalraj wants to image proteins with unprecedented precision – and thus gain insights into the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s. This should pave the way for an earlier diagnosis of the dementia disorder via a simple blood test. Together with neurologists from the Kantonsspital St.Gallen, a successful pilot study has now been completed.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Novel assay finds new mechanism underlying red blood cell aging

A multifaceted microfluidic in vitro assay is helping to identify the role of hypoxia on red blood cell aging via the biomechanical pathways. It holds promise for investigating hypoxic effects on the metastatic potential and relevant drug resistance of cancer cells. It also can be a useful tool to predict the mechanical performance of natural and artificial red blood cells for transfusion purposes and to further extend to red blood cells in other blood diseases and other cell types.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Warum ein mutierter Kaliumkanal in roten Blutzellen zur Blutarmut führen kann

Eine Variante der Blutarmut (Anämie) ist die so genannte Gárdos Channelopathy, eine durch Genmutation ausgelöste Fehlfunktion so genannter Gárdos-Kanäle. Durch diese gelangen Kalium-Ionen aus den roten Blutzellen hinaus. Ist die Funktion der Kanäle gestört, wirkt sich das auch auf die Calcium-Konzentration der Zellen aus. Mit schwerwiegenden Folgen: Zu viel Calcium lässt die Zelle sterben. In der Folge kommt es dann zur Anämie. Forscher der Saar-Uni haben den Zusammenhang zwischen Kalium- und Calciumströmen bei dieser genetischen Mutation nun untersucht und im Fachjournal Blood Advances veröffentlicht.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Metabolic changes in plasma and immune cells associated with COVID-19 severity, can predict patient survival

After examining the blood samples from nearly 200 COVID-19 patients, researchers have uncovered underlying metabolic changes that regulate how immune cells react to the disease. These changes are associated with disease severity and could be used to predict patient survival.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Programming synthetic exosomes to optimize wound healing

Scientists from the MPI for Medical Research and colleagues have engineered synthetic exosomes that regulate cellular signaling during wound closure. The synthetic structures resemble naturally occurring extracellular vesicles (EV) that play a fundamental role in communication between cells. The scientist uncovered key mechanisms to regulate and aid wound healing and the formation of new blood vessels. Inspired by the function of their natural blue prints, the scientists successfully demonstrate for the first time that fully-synthetic exosomes with therapeutic functionality can be constructed. The results were recently published in Science Advances.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

In a common genetic disorder, blood test reveals when benign tumors turn cancerous

Researchers have developed a blood test that, they believe, could one day offer a highly sensitive and inexpensive approach to detect cancer early in people with NF1. The blood test could also help doctors monitor how well patients are responding to treatment for their cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Biomarker may help predict benefits of immunotherapy

A group of researchers reported that a specific pattern, or ’signature,‘ of markers on immune cells in the blood is a likely biomarker of response to checkpoint immunotherapy. Within this immune signature, a molecule LAG-3 provided key information identifying patients with poorer outcomes.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel AI blood testing technology can ID lung cancers with high accuracy

A novel artificial intelligence blood testing technology was found to detect over 90% of lung cancers in samples from nearly 800 individuals with and without cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Blood-pressure drugs could improve colorectal cancer survival, study suggests

ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers and thiazide diuretics were all associated with decreased mortality in patients with colorectal cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers uncover evolutionary forces at play in the aging of the blood system and identify people at increased risk of blood cancer

Study shows how the interplay of positive, neutral and negative evolutionary selection acting on mutations in aging blood stem cells can lead to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in some individuals with age-related clonal hematopoiesis (ARCH).

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New blood test improves prostate cancer screening

Researchers recently reported that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could reduce overdiagnoses and thereby improve prostate cancer screening. Now, the same research group shows that the addition of a novel blood test, the Stockholm3 test, can reduce the number of MRIs performed by a third while further preventing the detection of minor, low-risk tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Potential new treatment for deadly blood cancer

A drug used to treat certain advanced breast cancers may offer a new treatment option for a deadly blood cancer known as myelofibrosis, new research suggests.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Growing evidence of vitamin K benefits for heart health

New research has found that people who eat a diet rich in vitamin K have up to a 34 percent lower risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease (conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels).

Quelle: Sciencedaily

DNA tags enable blood-based tests to assess cancer treatment outcomes

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) shed into the blood was discovered in the late 1940s but with rapid advances in genomics and computational analytics in just the past few years, researchers now believe that studying tags, or modifications to this type of DNA, may lead to a better understanding of how to assess, and possibly modulate, treatment approaches for cancer and other diseases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New organ-on-a-chip finds crucial interaction between blood, ovarian cancer tumors

Researchers are pushing organ-on-a-chip devices to new levels that could change the way clinicians approach cancer treatment, particularly ovarian cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Research provides insights into high-risk younger demographics for severe COVID-19

Using data from 9,859 COVID-19 infections, researchers have new insights into risk factors for younger populations, some of which differ significantly from their older counterparts. People younger than 45 had a greater than threefold increased risk of severe infection if they had cancer or heart disease, or blood, neurologic or endocrine disorders, the research found. These associations were weaker in older age groups.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Sensing ‚junk‘ RNA after chemotherapy enhances blood regeneration

Scientists reveal that during hematopoietic regeneration, RNA expressed from a part of the genome considered ‚junk DNA‘ is used by hematopoietic stem cells to get activated and proliferate. The study shows that these so-called transposable elements make RNA after chemotherapy and activate an immune receptor which induces inflammatory signals enhancing hematopoietic stem cell cycling and thus participating in the regeneration of the hematopoietic system.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Hitting the right note in dialysis care

Patients with malfunctioning kidneys often need dialysis to rid their blood of unwanted molecules and excess water. Personalising the settings of dialysis for each patient is crucial for their health, but it is complicated and error-prone. A group of Viennese scientists was awarded a competitive grant from the Vienna Science and Technology Fund to develop a precision medicine approach to dialysis treatment.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Novel microscopy method provides look into future of cell biology

What if a microscope allowed us to explore the 3D microcosm of blood vessels, nerves, and cancer cells instantaneously in virtual reality? What if it could provide views from multiple directions in real time without physically moving the specimen and worked up to 100 times faster than current technology?

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Microfilter device capable of detecting trace amounts of cancer cells in one mL of blood

Researchers have developed a microfilter device that can easily separate and capture trace amounts of cancer cells in blood. The palm-sized device is expected to contribute to the development of new cancer diagnostic technologies based on cancer cells in the blood, such as early detection by blood test, postoperative management, and recurrence monitoring.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Blood stem cells make brain tumors more aggressive

Scientists have discovered stem cells of the hematopoietic system in glioblastomas, the most aggressive form of brain tumor. These hematopoietic stem cells promote division of the cancer cells and at the same time suppress the immune response against the tumor. This surprising discovery might open up new possibilities for developing more effective immunotherapies against these malignant brain tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Inherited risk of early-onset cancer is higher among minority families

A new study shows inherited risk of early-onset cancer is significantly higher among Latino and African American families for solid tumors, and Asian/Pacific Islander families for blood-based cancers, compared to non-Latino white families in California. Researchers used California population-based health registries to evaluate the relative cancer risk among first-degree relatives of patients diagnosed with cancer by the age of 26. This study demonstrates the need for increased scrutiny on familial cancer clustering in minority populations.

Quelle: Sciencedaily