Screening for ovarian cancer did not reduce early deaths

The latest analysis looked at data from more than 200,000 women aged 50-74 at recruitment who were followed up for an average of 16 years. The women were randomly allocated to one of three groups: no screening, annual screening using an ultrasound scan, and annual multimodal screening involving a blood test followed by an ultrasound scan as a second line test.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Breaching the blood-brain barrier to deliver precious payloads

RNA-based drugs may change the standard of care for many diseases, making personalized medicine a reality. So far these cost-effective, easy-to-manufacture drugs haven’t been very useful in treating brain tumors and other brain disease. But a team has shown that a combination of ultrasound and RNA-loaded nanoparticles can temporarily open the protective blood-brain barrier, allowing the delivery of potent medicine to brain tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Hopkins-led research team takes gene mutation detection in blood to the next level

Researchers have developed a new technology to overcome the inefficiencies and high error rates common among next-generation sequencing techniques that have previously limited their clinical application.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The micro-environment of breast cancer in three dimensions

Cancerous tumors thrive on blood, extending their roots deep into the fabric of the tissue of their host. They alter the genetics of surrounding cells and evolve to avoid the protective attacks of immune cells. Now, researchers have developed a way to study the relationship between solid, difficult-to-treat tumors and the microenvironment they create to support their growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New genetic target for blood cancer treatment

Researchers have identified a vulnerability in some cases of acute myeloid leukaemia that could be harnessed for targeted treatment of these poor-prognosis cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Artificial intelligence model predicts which key of the immune system opens the locks of coronavirus

A new artificial intelligence (AI) method is helping researchers link immune cells to their targets and, for example, uncouple which white blood cells recognize SARS-CoV-2. The tool has broad applications in understanding the function of the immune system in infections, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists discover ‘jumping’ genes that can protect against blood cancers

New research has uncovered a surprising role for so-called ‘jumping’ genes that are a source of genetic mutations responsible for a number of human diseases. Scientists made the unexpected discovery that these DNA sequences, also known as transposons, can protect against certain blood cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Protein that blocks body’s ability to clear bad cholesterol identified

Researchers have uncovered a long-sought link in the battle to control cholesterol and heart disease. The protein that interferes with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors that clear ‘bad’ cholesterol from the blood was identified. Excess LDL cholesterol can lead to atherosclerosis — a narrowing and hardening of arteries — and ultimately, heart attack.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New test traces DNA origins to monitor transplant rejection and reveal hidden cancers

A new technique that can trace which tissues and organs the DNA in our blood comes from has just been reported.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Image analysis based on machine learning reliably identifies haematological malignancies

Image analysis utilizing neural networks can help identify details in tissue samples which are difficult to discern by the human eye. A study demonstrated that the technique makes it possible to accurately determine genetic mutations in the cancer cells of patients suffering from myelodysplastic syndrome, a malignant blood disorder.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Saarbrücken based bioinformaticians trace down molecular signals of Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, yet little is known about its causes and progression. To diagnose it early, make prognoses and develop therapies, biomarkers that indicate the development and course of the disease are needed. Bioinformaticians at Saarland University have been searching for such biomarkers, focusing on ribonucleic acids (RNA). In their study, which is now published in the journal ‘Nature Aging’, they show that the level of non-coding RNAs in the blood of a Parkinson’s patient can be used to track the course of the disease.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Different diseases – common metabolic pathways

Many older, but also increasingly younger, people suffer from several diseases at the same time. Scientists at the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) at Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, together with colleagues from Munich and the United Kingdom, have now identified common risk factors that predispose to multiple even seemingly unrelated diseases. They achieved this by evaluating data from more than 11,000 study participants, from whom both disease progressions and extensive blood values were available. The results argue for a comprehensive approach to disease prevention. The scientists have now published their findings in the journal Nature Medicine.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Researchers illuminate potential precursors of blood cancers

Researchers provide new clues about genetic mutations that may initiate blood cancer development and those that may help cancer to progress.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Turbocharging the killing power of immune cells against cancer

Creating ‘super soldiers’ of specific white blood cells to boost an anti-tumor response has been shown in a series of elegant experiments.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Glitch in genome architecture may cause B-cell malignancies

Restoring an enzyme that maintains the way chromosomes are packed inside cells may lead to new therapies for some blood cancers, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Tracing the path of leukemia

B-cell lymphocytosis, a condition in which individuals have increased levels of particular white blood cells, in some cases leads to blood cancer. As an international team of researchers now shows in samples from patients, both diseases exhibit similar epigenetic signatures that are forming very early during the course of the disease.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Blood group co-determines composition of the intestinal microbiome

In a large genome study, a Kiel University research team demonstrates correlations between certain gene variants and the composition of bacterial colonization in the human body

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

SARS-CoV-2 infection demonstrated in a human lung bronchioalveolar tissue model

Heidelberg/Germany, 11 January 2021 – Development of an in vitro human-derived tissue model for studying virus infection and disease progression in the alveolar cells of the lungs responsible for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange with the blood might enable the study of possible therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) triggered by SARS-CoV-2. Researchers in the Netherlands have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently in their model resembling the human bronchioalveolar system that is thought to play a critical role in progression of infection towards pneumonia and ARDS.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Augmented immune response explains adverse course of COVID-19 in patients with hypertension, could ACE inhibitors help?

COVID-19 patients who also suffer from high blood pressure are more likely to fall severely ill, which also leaves them at greater risk of death. Scientists from the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, with partners in Heidelberg and Leipzig, have now found that the immune cells of patients with hypertension are already pre-activated, and that this is greatly enhanced under COVID-19. However, certain hypertension-reducing drugs known as ACE inhibitors can have a beneficial effect. They not only lower blood pressure, but also counteract immune hyperactivation. The scientists have now published their findings in the journal Nature Biotechnology.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Reducing treatment-related complication for blood cancer patients

Researchers published promising findings on preventing a common complication to lifesaving blood stem cell transplantation in leukemia.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Anticoagulants reduce the number of brain metastases in mice

Brain metastases can only develop if cancer cells exit the capillaries and enter into the brain tissue. To facilitate this step, cancer cells influence blood clotting, as scientists have now been able to show in mice. The cancer cells actively promote the formation of clots, which helps them to arrest in the brain capillaries and then penetrate through the vessel wall. Drugs that inhibit thrombin were able to reduce the number of brain metastases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New drug combination could improve glucose and weight control in diabetes

Scientists have shown that adding an experimental cancer drug to a widely used diabetes treatment improves blood glucose control and weight loss in mice, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Biomarkers could help predict severe SARS-CoV-2 infection

Heidelberg/Germany, 14 December 2020 – Molecular markers in the blood shown to be predictive of severe COVID-19 outcomes resulting from SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection have been identified in a study by a Chinese research team. The study results extend understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical progress of COVID-19 with potential for identifying early during the course of infection which individuals are most at risk of developing severe conditions and requiring hospital care.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New analysis method for predicting the risks and effects of immunotherapy

In a new study, researchers have been able to show differences in how Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody drug, interacts with the blood of healthy individuals compared to patients with chronic lymphatic leukemia. This has awakened hopes that this analysis method could pave the way for important breakthroughs in immunotherapy research and treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

CRISPR-edited CAR T cells enhance fight against blood cancers

Knocking out a protein known to stifle T cell activation on CAR T cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology enhanced the engineered T cells’ ability to eliminate blood cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily