People at high genetic risk for colorectal cancer benefit more from lifestyle changes

People with a high polygenic risk score for colorectal cancer could benefit more at preventing the disease by leading healthy lifestyles than those at lower genetic risk, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New research optimizes body’s own immune system to fight cancer

A new study shows how engineered immune cells move faster to attack tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Screening for ovarian cancer did not reduce early deaths

The latest analysis looked at data from more than 200,000 women aged 50-74 at recruitment who were followed up for an average of 16 years. The women were randomly allocated to one of three groups: no screening, annual screening using an ultrasound scan, and annual multimodal screening involving a blood test followed by an ultrasound scan as a second line test.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Obesity slows progress against cancer deaths, study suggests

A new study suggests that heart disease and obesity-associated cancer mortality rates have continued to improve, but at a slowing pace.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Hydrogen peroxide-producing drug boosts cancer-killing effect of radiotherapy

A small drug molecule that appears to protect normal tissue from the damaging effects of radiation, may simultaneously be able to boost the cancer-killing effect of radiation therapy, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer has ripple effect on distant tissues

A new study with zebrafish shows that a deadly form of skin cancer — melanoma — alters the metabolism of healthy tissues elsewhere in the body. The research suggests that these other tissues could potentially be targeted to help treat cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists show how to attack the ‘fortress’ surrounding pancreatic cancer tumors

Tackling the scar tissue that shields pancreatic tumors from effective drug access is a promising advance in a notoriously hard-to-treat cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Mitochondrial enzyme found to block cell death pathway points to new cancer treatment strategy

Researchers have discovered a new role for the DHODH enzyme in blocking a form of cell death called ferroptosis. Preclinical findings suggest that targeting DHODH could restore cell death and inhibit tumor growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Low-dose, four-drug combo blocks cancer spread in mice

Low doses of a four-drug combination helps prevent the spread of cancer in mice without triggering drug resistance or recurrence, shows a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers discover regulatory pathway that blocks immune response against cancer

Researchers show that TIM-3 inhibits the STING signaling pathway in dendritic cells, thereby blocking their ability to elicit an immune response.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

PARP inhibitor shrinks tumors in pancreatic cancer patients with mutations

More than two-thirds of pancreatic cancer patients harboring genetic mutations saw their tumor stop growing or shrink substantially after being switched from intensive chemotherapy to the PARP inhibitor rucaparib as a maintenance therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Integrating medical imaging and cancer biology with deep neural networks

Scientists have carried out a study investigating whether deep neural networks can represent associations between gene expression, histology, and CT-derived image features. They found that the network could not only reproduce previously reported associations but also identify new ones.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Sugar-sweetened drinks linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer in women under 50, study finds

Colorectal cancer diagnoses have increased among people under age 50 in recent years and researchers are seeking reasons why. A new study has found a link between drinking sugar-sweetened beverages and an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer in women under age 50. The findings suggest that heavy consumption of sugary drinks during adolescence (ages 13 to 18) and adulthood can increase the disease risk.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Process for eliminating unneeded cells may also protect against cancer

Biologists find cell extrusion, a process that helps organisms eliminated unneeded cells, is triggered when cells can’t replicate their DNA during cell division. In humans, extrusion may serve as a way for the body to eliminate cancerous or precancerous cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Restricting growth, spread of head and neck cancers

Researchers have discovered a key molecule that allows cancer stem cells to bypass the body’s natural immune defenses, spurring the growth and spread of head and neck squamous cell cancers. Their study, conducted in mice, also demonstrates that inhibiting this molecule derails cancer progression and helps eliminate these stem cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

3D ‘bioprinting’ used to create nose cartilage

A team of University of Alberta researchers has discovered a way to use 3-D bioprinting technology to create custom-shaped cartilage for use in surgical procedures. The work aims to make it easier for surgeons to safely restore the features of skin cancer patients living with nasal cartilage defects after surgery.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The micro-environment of breast cancer in three dimensions

Cancerous tumors thrive on blood, extending their roots deep into the fabric of the tissue of their host. They alter the genetics of surrounding cells and evolve to avoid the protective attacks of immune cells. Now, researchers have developed a way to study the relationship between solid, difficult-to-treat tumors and the microenvironment they create to support their growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Engineering T cells to attack cancer broadly

This study builds on decades of work showing that the protein IL-24 attacks cancer broadly, and is the first to deliver the protein using T cells. This approach is in contrast to CAR-T cells, which are built to recognize proteins on the surface of cancer cells and haven’t been successful against solid tumors. Mice with prostate cancer experienced shrinkage of the original tumor as well as distant metastases following treatment with IL-24 T cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New genetic target for blood cancer treatment

Researchers have identified a vulnerability in some cases of acute myeloid leukaemia that could be harnessed for targeted treatment of these poor-prognosis cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Single-cell CRISPR technology deciphers role of chromatin accessibility in cancer

Researchers have developed CRISPR-sciATAC, a novel integrative genetic screening platform that jointly captures CRISPR gene perturbations and single-cell chromatin accessibility genome-wide. The new method harnesses the programmability of the gene editing system CRISPR to knock-out nearly all chromatin-related genes in parallel, offering researchers deeper insights into the role of DNA accessibility in cancer and in rare diseases involving chromatin.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How oxygen radicals protect against cancer

Oxygen radicals in the body are generally considered dangerous because they can trigger something called oxidative stress, which is associated with the development of many chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. In studies on mice, scientists have now discovered how oxygen radicals, conversely, can also reduce the risk of cancer and mitigate damage to the hereditary molecule DNA.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Men’s loneliness linked to an increased risk of cancer

A recent study shows that loneliness among middle-aged men is associated with an increased risk of cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Force transmission between cells orchestrates collective cellular motion

How do the billions of cells communicate in order to perform tasks? The cells exert force on their environment through movement – and in doing so, they communicate. They work as a group in order to infiltrate their environment, perform wound healing and the like. They sense the stiffness or softness of their surroundings and this helps them connect and organize their collective effort. But when the connection between cells is distrubeddisturbed, a situation just like when cancer is initiated, can appear.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Genetic effects of Chernobyl radiation

Researchers utilized genomic tools to investigate potential health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, a known carcinogen, as a result of the 1986 Chernobyl accident. One study found no evidence that genetic changes associated with radiation exposure are passed to children, while the second study documented the genetic changes in the tumors of people who developed thyroid cancer after being exposed as children or fetuses to the radiation released by the accident. Findings are being published close to the 35th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Artificial intelligence model predicts which key of the immune system opens the locks of coronavirus

A new artificial intelligence (AI) method is helping researchers link immune cells to their targets and, for example, uncouple which white blood cells recognize SARS-CoV-2. The tool has broad applications in understanding the function of the immune system in infections, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily