Experimental model of ovarian cancer shows effect of healthy cell arrangement in metastasis

A key element to slowing metastasis in ovarian cancer is understanding the mechanisms of how tumor cells invade tissues. Biophysics researchers explain how microscopic defects in how healthy cells line up can alter how easily ovarian cancer cells invade tissue. Using an experimental model, the group found that disruptions in the normal cellular layout, called topological defects, affect the rate of tumor cell invasion.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers discover key stem cell dormancy mechanism which could help unlock future cancer treatments

Researchers have made new findings which provide a broader understanding of how dormant hematopoietic stem cells are activated and could pave the way towards therapeutic treatments for a number of cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel therapy shows promise for lung cancer patients with rare EGFR mutation

Researchers report on a multinational, early phase clinical trial evaluating a new targeted therapy for patients with metastatic or unresectable non-small cell lung cancer who have a specific genetic mutation: EGFR Ex20Ins.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Statins may improve survival for triple-negative breast cancer patients

A new study found a significant association between cholesterol-lowering drugs commonly known as statins and survival rates of triple-negative breast cancer patients. Since statins are low in cost, easy to access and produce minimal side effects, this could have an important impact on outcomes for this aggressive disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New treatment option for advanced urothelial cancer patients shows promise in a phase 2 clinical trial

A new treatment for advanced urothelial cancer was effective with tolerable side effects in an international, multi-center phase 2 clinical trial. The trial results prompted a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accelerated approval of the treatment on April 13, giving patients with this very aggressive type of cancer a new therapeutic option.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Atomic-level, 3-D structure of MUTYH protein opens small window into DNA repair mechanism

A research team has analyzed the three-dimensional structure of a protein that suppresses the development of colorectal polyposis, MUTYH, at the atomic level and clarified the repair mechanism for DNA mispairings. Since mutations in the MUTYH gene cause heritable colorectal polyposis, which leads to colorectal cancer, the researchers expect that this work will be useful for future research on heritable colorectal polyposis associated with MUTYH.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Radio-wave therapy is safe for liver cancer patients and shows improvement in overall survival, study suggests

Researchers have shown that a targeted therapy using non-thermal radio waves is safe to use in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, according to a new study. The therapy also showed a benefit in overall survival.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Source of DNA mutations in melanoma

The mutations that give rise to melanoma result from a chemical conversion in DNA fueled by sunlight — not just a DNA copying error as previously believed, reports a new study. The findings upend long-held beliefs about the mechanisms underlying the disease, reinforce the importance of prevention efforts and offer a path forward for investigating the origins of other cancer types.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Crucial new molecular mechanisms and biomarkers in ovarian cancer

Medical researchers have discovered what appears to be an Achilles’ heel in ovarian cancers, as well as new biomarkers that could point to which patients are the best candidates for possible new treatments.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New relevant target for PARP inhibitor talazoparib

Researchers report the identification of a new target for the PARP inhibitor drug talazoparib and show that combination treatment with talazoparib and the WEE1 inhibitor adavosertib results in enhanced anti-cancer effects.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Eliminating RNA-binding protein improves survival in aggressive leukemia

Removing a protein that is often overexpressed in a rare and aggressive subtype of leukemia can help to slow the cancer’s development and significantly increase the likelihood of survival, according to a new study in mice.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

More genetic markers for inherited testicular cancer identified

A meta-analysis of nearly 200,000 men revealed 22 new genetic locations that could be susceptible to inherited testicular germ cell tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Mapping of Genetic Control Elements in the Cerebellum

The mammalian cerebellum is key to motor control and contributes to many of the higher brain functions. In close collaboration with Prof. Dr Stefan Pfister of the Hopp Children’s Cancer Center Heidelberg, an international research team led by Prof. Dr Henrik Kaessmann from the Center for Molecular Biology of Heidelberg University has now decoded the genetic programmes that control the development of cerebellar cell types before and after birth.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Scientists advance breast, ovarian cancer research with cryo-electron microscopy

Using advanced imaging technology, scientists have provided an unprecedented understanding of the BRCA1-BARD1 protein complex, which is often mutated in patients with breast or ovarian cancer. Their paper identifies aspects of how BRCA1-BARD1 functions, supporting future translational research, cancer prevention efforts and drug development.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Seeking a unique treatment for lobular breast cancer

In an attempt to find out why the long-term outcomes are poorer for patients with lobular breast cancer — which affects some 40,000 women a year — researchers began looking at the role of the protein MDC1 in tumor cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Healthy lifestyle may help mitigate high genetic risk of cancer

Healthy lifestyle factors such as abstinence from smoking and drinking, low body mass index, and exercise correlated with decreased cancer incidence, even in individuals with a high genetic risk.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

DNA tags enable blood-based tests to assess cancer treatment outcomes

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) shed into the blood was discovered in the late 1940s but with rapid advances in genomics and computational analytics in just the past few years, researchers now believe that studying tags, or modifications to this type of DNA, may lead to a better understanding of how to assess, and possibly modulate, treatment approaches for cancer and other diseases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New breakthrough to help immune systems in the fight against cancer

New research has identified potential treatment that could improve the human immune system’s ability to search out and destroy cancer cells within the body. Scientists have identified a way to restrict the activity of a group of cells which regulate the immune system, which in turn can unleash other immune cells to attack tumours in cancer patients.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Comprehensive clinical sequencing opens door to the promise of precision medicine

A new study highlights the power of comprehensive whole genome, whole exome and RNA sequencing to better understand and treat each patient’s cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New organ-on-a-chip finds crucial interaction between blood, ovarian cancer tumors

Researchers are pushing organ-on-a-chip devices to new levels that could change the way clinicians approach cancer treatment, particularly ovarian cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Potential role of ‘junk DNA’ sequence in aging, cancer

Researchers have recently identified a DNA region known as VNTR2-1 that appears to drive the activity of the telomerase gene, which has been shown to prevent aging in certain types of cells. Knowing how the telomerase gene is regulated and activated and why it is only active in certain cell types could someday be the key to understanding how humans age and how to stop the spread of cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New study provides clues to decades-old mystery about cell movement

A new study shows that the stiffness of protein fibers in tissues, like collagen, are a key component in controlling the movement of cells. The groundbreaking discovery provides the first proof of a theory from the early 1980s and could have a major impact on fields that study cell movement from regenerative medicine to cancer research.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Personalized immunotherapy: Rapid screening of therapeutic combinations

An innovative testing platform that more closely mimics what cancer encounters in the body may allow for more precise, personalized therapies by enabling the rapid study of multiple therapeutic combinations against tumor cells. The platform uses a three-dimensional environment to more closely mirror a tumor microenvironment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Artificial intelligence models to analyze cancer images take shortcuts that introduce bias

A new study shows that deep learning models trained on large sets of cancer genetic and tissue histology data can easily identify the institution that submitted the images.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists provide new insight on how to stop transcription of cancer cells

Findings could help pave the way for cancer therapies that target TAF12, potentially stopping transcription in cancer cells and helping decrease the growth of cancerous tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily