Towards Precision Medicine for Dialysis Patients

A common gene variant for the protein Aquaporin-1 lowers the amount of water channels in the cell membranes. This reduces water transport and leads to a higher risk of death in patients with kidney failure treated with peritoneal dialysis. In such cases, specific osmotic solutions should be used, as an international research team led by the University of Zurich has shown.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

The human immune system is an early riser

Circadian clocks, which regulate most of the physiological processes of living beings over a rhythm of about 24 hours, are one of the most fundamental biological mechanisms. By deciphering the cell migration mechanisms underlying the immune response, scientists have shown that the activation of the immune system is modulated according to the time of day. Indeed, the migration of immune cells from the skin to the lymph nodes oscillates over a 24-hours period. Immune function is highest in the resting phase, just before activity resumes — in the afternoon for mice, which are nocturnal animals, and early morning for humans. These results suggest that the time of day should possibly be taken into account when administering vaccines or immunotherapies against cancer, in order to increase their effectiveness.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Molecular atlas of small cell lung cancer reveals unusual cell type that could explain why it’s so aggressive

Stem-like cells that make up only a tiny fraction of the total cells in a lung tumor could be the key to stopping the disease’s deadly spread, say researchers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Delta and Delta Plus evade the antibody response

Cell culture studies show increased lung cell entry of the SARS-CoV-2 variants Delta and Delta Plus and reduced inhibition by antibodies

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Mito warriors: Scientists discover how T cell assassins reload their weapons to kill and kill again

Researchers have discovered how T cells — an important component of our immune system — are able keep on killing as they hunt down and kill cancer cells, repeatedly reloading their toxic weapons.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Solving mystery of rare cancers directly caused by HIV

For nearly a decade, scientists have known that HIV integrates itself into genes in cells that have the potential to cause cancer. And when this happens in animals with other retroviruses, those animals often develop cancer. But, perplexingly and fortunately, that isn’t regularly happening in people living with HIV. A new study reveals why doctors aren’t seeing high rates of T cell lymphomas — or cancers of the immune system — in patients with HIV.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Break through the tumor’s protective shield

The immune system protects the body from cancer. To protect healthy body cells from its own immune system, they have developed a protective shield: the protein CD47 is a so called ‚don’t eat me‘ signal, which tells the immune cells to stand back. Tumor cells exploit this CD47-based protection strategy for evading the immune system, by increasing presentation of CD47 on their cell surface. A team has now developed a therapy concept for programming the tumor cells to produce on their own a CD47-blocking and immune-activation fusion protein. This therapy approach could stop tumor growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New way to image whole organisms in 3D brings key skin color pigment into focus

To understand the biological underpinnings of skin and hair pigmentation and related diseases such as albinism or melanoma, scientists and doctors need quantitative, three-dimensional information about the architecture, content and location of pigment cells. Researchers have developed a new technique that allows scientists to visualize every cell containing melanin pigment in 3D, in whole zebrafish.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How high-fat diets allow cancer cells to go unnoticed

The immune system relies on cell surface tags to recognize cancer cells. Researchers discovered mice who ate high-fat diets produced less of these tags on their intestinal cells, suppressing the ability of immune cells to identify and eliminate intestinal tumors. The high-fat diet also reduced the presence of certain bacteria in the mice’s gut, which normally helps maintain the production of these tags.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Discovery of mechanics of drug targets for COVID-19

Researchers have discovered the working mechanism of potential drug targets for various diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and even COVID-19. The findings uncover the inner workings of cell receptors that are involved in cancer progression and inflammatory diseases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Hungry or full: It comes down to the atomic details

Insight into the molecular structure of an appetite-regulating cell receptor



A protein – measuring just a few nanometers in size – acts as a molecular switch with a crucial role in determining whether we feel hungry or full. By determining of the protein’s 3D structure, researchers from Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin were able to visualize the molecular structures of the hormones with which this protein – melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) – interacts. Writing in Cell Research*, the researchers report that this enabled them to describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the receptor’s activation and inhibition.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Scientists develop artificial intelligence method to predict anti-cancer immunity

Researchers and data scientists have developed an artificial intelligence technique that can identify which cell surface peptides produced by cancer cells called neoantigens are recognized by the immune system.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Breast cancers: Ruptures in cell nuclei promotes tumor invasion

When cells multiply and migrate, they can be compressed and their nucleus may break open. This phenomenon causes DNA damage. Scientists have now shown that this facilitates the spread of cancer cells in breast tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists identify new therapeutic target in ovarian cancer subtype with poor prognosis

Mutations in the ARID1A gene are present in more than 50% of ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC), for which effective treatments are lacking. Scientists discovered that loss of ARID1A function enhances a cellular stress response pathway that promotes survival of cancer cells, which become sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of this pathway.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel assay finds new mechanism underlying red blood cell aging

A multifaceted microfluidic in vitro assay is helping to identify the role of hypoxia on red blood cell aging via the biomechanical pathways. It holds promise for investigating hypoxic effects on the metastatic potential and relevant drug resistance of cancer cells. It also can be a useful tool to predict the mechanical performance of natural and artificial red blood cells for transfusion purposes and to further extend to red blood cells in other blood diseases and other cell types.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How pruning the cytoskeleton moves the cell

Cells are characterized to be stable yet highly flexible. They constantly modify their shape and even move through tissue. These vital properties are based on a dynamically organized network of branched actin filaments, which generates pushing forces to move the cell membrane. An interdisciplinary team lead by Peter Bieling and Stefan Raunser from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology (MPI) in Dortmund has now revealed a previously unknown mechanism, explaining how stopping the growth of older actin filaments within the network promotes the formation of new ones, thereby maintaining the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, much like proper pruning of hedges in the garden.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Patients with multiple sclerosis show robust T-cell responses to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines

New research shows that mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are effective at inducing T-cell responses in multiple sclerosis patients who receive B cell-depleting infusions even if their antibody responses are diminished.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Long-term benefit of SABR for operable early-stage NSCLC shown in new study

A new study showed that stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) was as effective as surgery at providing long-term benefits to patients with operable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and generated minimal side effects. The study is the first of its kind to compare long-term results of SABR against surgical treatment in patients with operable early-stage NSCLC.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New research shows a link between cell identities and childhood cancer type neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is a type of childhood cancer that develops in infants and young children. Whilst it is a relatively rare form of cancer, it is still responsible for approximately 15 percent of all cancer deaths in children. Researchers have discovered that low-risk and high-risk neuroblastoma have different cell identities, which can affect the survival rate.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Four independent studies show rovalpituzumab tesirine ineffective against small cell lung cancer

Four independent studies demonstrate that rovalpituzumab tesirine for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is not effective against SCLC, casting a pall over the future of the therapy and closing a door that seemed opened four years ago when the first study on the therapy was published.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Die Kunst des künstlichen Gewebes

Der Hilde Mangold Award – ein posthumes Denkmal für die deutsche Embryologin Hilde Mangold – wird jährlich an herausragende Stammzellforscherinnen durch das German Stem Cell Network (GSCN) verliehen. Mit dem Preis werden sowohl die wissenschaftlichen Errungenschaften, als auch das Lebenswerk der Preisträgerin als Vorbild für junge Wissenschaftlerinnen gewürdigt. Dieses Jahr darf Frau Prof. Dr. Katja Schenke-Layland, Direktion des NMI Naturwissenschaftlichen und Medizinischen Instituts in Reutlingen und Professorin für Medizintechnik und Regenerative Medizin an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Eberhard-Karls-Universität in Tübingen diesen Preis in Empfang nehmen.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Widespread tumor suppression mechanism stops cancer progression by interfering with cancer cell metabolism

A Wistar study shows the tumor suppressor Parkin, whose levels are reduced in different cancer types, causes acute metabolic and oxidative stress, suppresses mitochondrial trafficking, and blocks tumor cell movement, reducing primary and metastatic tumor growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists discover a fundamental feature of aggressive lymphomas

New research has revealed a new fundamental feature of aggressive B-cell lymphomas which could open the door to further research into early detection and treatment of the disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Varying immune cell levels in canine brain tumors could provide therapeutic targets

A new study reveals that high-grade gliomas, or brain tumors, in dogs contained more immune cells associated with suppressing immune response than low-grade gliomas.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Heat-controllable CAR T cells destroy tumors and prevent relapse in new study

New research builds on a body of work exploring remotely controlled cell therapies, in which the researchers can precisely target tumors, wherever they are in the body, with a local deposition of heat. The latest study shows the system cured cancer in mice, and the team’s approach not only shrunk tumors but prevented relapse — critical for long-term survival. Further studies will delve into additional tailoring of T-cells, as well as how heat will be deposited at the tumor site.

Quelle: Sciencedaily