Mitochondrial enzyme found to block cell death pathway points to new cancer treatment strategy

Researchers have discovered a new role for the DHODH enzyme in blocking a form of cell death called ferroptosis. Preclinical findings suggest that targeting DHODH could restore cell death and inhibit tumor growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New research outlines a critical driver in an immune cell’s defense against melanoma

Researchers have found critical new insights into how cells defend against melanoma. The team describes how an enzyme called nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, or NAMPT, initiates antitumor activity. The researchers suggest that new therapies strengthening this pathway in immune cells could be the foundation for more effective treatments against melanoma.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

SARS-CoV-2 Research: Second possible effective mechanism of remdesivir discovered

When a cell is infected, SARS-CoV-2 not only causes the host cell to produce new virus particles. The virus also suppresses host cell defence mechanisms. The virus protein nsP3 plays a central role in this. Using structural analyses, researchers at Goethe University in cooperation with the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute have now discovered that a decomposition product of the virostatic agent remdesivir binds to nsP3. This points to a further, previously unknown effective mechanism of remdesivir which may be important for the development of new drugs to combat SRS-CoV-2 and other RNA viruses.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Distinct cell-to-cell communication processes controlled differently

Cells talk to each other to coordinate nutrition, waste removal, energy use, and, in some cases, disease progression. The cells that line the surfaces of organs or specific tissues, called epithelial cells, appear to speak two different languages – one for either side of the cell, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Errors at the start of life

Only one in three fertilizations leads to a successful pregnancy. Many embryos fail to progress beyond early development. Cell biologists at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen (Germany), together with researchers at the Institute of Farm Animal Genetics in Mariensee and other international colleagues, have now developed a new model system for studying early embryonic development. With the help of this system, they discovered that errors often occur when the genetic material from each parent combines immediately after fertilization. This is due to a remarkably inefficient process.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Process for eliminating unneeded cells may also protect against cancer

Biologists find cell extrusion, a process that helps organisms eliminated unneeded cells, is triggered when cells can’t replicate their DNA during cell division. In humans, extrusion may serve as a way for the body to eliminate cancerous or precancerous cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Restricting growth, spread of head and neck cancers

Researchers have discovered a key molecule that allows cancer stem cells to bypass the body’s natural immune defenses, spurring the growth and spread of head and neck squamous cell cancers. Their study, conducted in mice, also demonstrates that inhibiting this molecule derails cancer progression and helps eliminate these stem cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Schwachstellen des Virus nutzen, um Immunabwehr zu stärken – SARS-CoV-2-Proteine manipulieren Immunsignalwege

Forschende der Universität Ulm haben untersucht, wie das neue Coronavirus das menschliche Immunsystem unter seine Kontrolle bringt. In der Studie, die im Fachmagazin Cell Reports veröffentlicht wurde, zeigte sich aber auch, dass die Virusproteine nicht alle antiviral wirkenden Immunsignalwege komplett abschalten können. Die Wissenschaftler und Wissenschaftlerinnen vom Institut für Molekulare Virologie arbeiten nun daran, solche Schwachstellen von SARS-CoV-2 zu identifizieren, um das Virus durch gezielte Immunaktivierung zu bekämpfen.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

A physics perspective on wound healing

In material physics understanding how systems interact across the interfaces separating them is of central interest. But can physical models clarify similar concepts in living systems, such as cells? Physicists used the framework of disordered elastic systems to study the process of wound healing – the proliferation of cell fronts which eventually join to close a lesion. Their study identified the scales of the dominant interactions between cells which determine this process.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

3D Cell Culture 2021: Models Applications & TRanslation

The 3D Cell Culture 2021 conference will focus on advanced and predictive 3D cell culture models for the understanding of diseases and substance testing. This includes complex systems like multi-cell type models, multi-organ and microphysiological systems.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Single-cell CRISPR technology deciphers role of chromatin accessibility in cancer

Researchers have developed CRISPR-sciATAC, a novel integrative genetic screening platform that jointly captures CRISPR gene perturbations and single-cell chromatin accessibility genome-wide. The new method harnesses the programmability of the gene editing system CRISPR to knock-out nearly all chromatin-related genes in parallel, offering researchers deeper insights into the role of DNA accessibility in cancer and in rare diseases involving chromatin.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Corals That “Spit” Algae

Microalgae of the dinoflagellate group have engaged in intracellular symbioses with corals since primeval times. Researchers from the Centre for Organismal Studies of Heidelberg University recently discovered that such symbioses depend on the ability of the algae to suppress the immune system of their host cell and thereby avoid being “spit out” again. The researchers also found indications that this cellular immune response is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism that is more widespread than previously assumed.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Bauchspeicheldrüsen-Tumore aus dem Labor: Organoide helfen, die Krebsentstehung zu verstehen

Für die Krebsforschung haben Ulmer Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler Bauchspeicheldrüsen-Organoide im Labor gezüchtet. Anhand dieser Modelle aus Stammzellen wollen die Forschenden die Entstehung von Bauchspeicheldrüsenkrebs nachvollziehen. Dadurch erhoffen sie sich neue, patientenspezifische Behandlungsansätze. Zudem könnten diese „duktalen Pankreas-Organoide“ dabei helfen, Tierversuche in der Krebsforschung zu reduzieren. Die aktuelle, in Kooperation mit dem Helmholtz Zentrum in München entstandene Publikation wurde im Journal „Cell Stem Cell“ veröffentlicht.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Start of the Fraunhofer High-Performance Center Medical and Pharmaceutical Engineering in northern Germany

The High-Performance Center Medical and Pharmaceutical Engineering was launched. With a focus on personalized implants and respiratory systems as well as individualized pharmaceutical production, the goal is to create a platform for research and the transfer of innovations into patient care. For this reason the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine ITEM in Hannover, the Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films IST in Braunschweig and the Fraunhofer Research Institution for Individualized and Cell-Based Medical Engineering IMTE in Lübeck have joined forces.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Metabolite fumarate can reveal cell damage: New method to generate fumarate for MRI presented

Researchers find new technique for rapid hyperpolarization and purification of fumarate in aqueous solution / Obstacles involving the use of parahydrogen overcome

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Alzheimer-Modellierung zeigt überraschende Ergebnisse

Der Innsbrucker Molekularbiologe Jerome Mertens und sein Team modellierten erstmals auch die sporadische, nur im Alter auftretende Form von Alzheimer basierend auf Hautzellen von Patient*innen. Die in Cell Stem Cell veröffentlichten Ergebnisse belegen eine Altersabhängigkeit dieser Form der Krankheit und zeigen, dass Alzheimer-Nervenzellen und Krebszellen einiges gemeinsam haben.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

DNA building blocks regulate inflammation

Mitochondria are the energy suppliers of our cells and have their own genetic material, which triggers an inflammatory response when released into the cell’s interior. Some cardiac and neurodegenerative diseases as well as the ageing process are linked to the mitochondrial genome. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing and the CECAD Cluster of Excellence in Ageing research have investigated the reasons for the release of mitochondrial genetic material and found a direct link to cellular metabolism: when the cell’s DNA building blocks are in short supply, mitochondria release their genetic material and trigger inflammation.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

How SARS-Coronaviruses reprogram the human cell to their own benefit

Coronavirus researchers under Prof. Rolf Hilgenfeld of the University of Lübeck and Dr. Albrecht von Brunn of the Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich published a research breakthrough in the highly ranked “EMBO Journal”. They discovered how SARS viruses enhance the production of viral proteins in infected cells, so that many new copies of the virus can be generated. Other coronaviruses apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 do not use this mechanism, thereby providing a possible explanation for the much higher pathogenicity of the SARS viruses.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Defects in a specific cell type may cause ulcerative colitis

There are many variants of ‘goblet cells’ in the intestines and they seem to have different functions, according to a new study. The study indicates that defects in goblet cells of a particular type may be a factor contributing to ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

DKMS launches online platform for healthcare professionals

DKMS invites medical and healthcare professionals working in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to visit the newly developed DKMS platform at www.professional.dkms.org. This website gives an overview of the work of all our specialist departments and offers comprehensive insights into the non-profit organization’s scientific studies and publications. Furthermore, it provides access to DKMS’ services, resources, grants and support programs. The site features a modern and streamlined design and makes it easy to access essential information.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Genome von winzigen Würmern im großen Maßstab editieren

MDC-Forschende können jetzt in mikroskopisch kleinen Würmern verschiedene genetische Mutationen induzieren und deren Auswirkungen beobachten. In der Fachzeitschrift Cell Reports beschreibt das MDC-Team den In-vivo-Ansatz der parallelen Genetik und eine neue Analysesoftware namens crispr-DART.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Novel immunotherapy approach to fight melanoma

Researchers have advanced a tumor-targeting and cell penetrating antibody that can deliver payloads to stimulate an immune response to help treat melanoma.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New CAR T approach minimizes resistance, helps avoid relapse in non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma

Early results from a new, pioneering chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy trial found using a bilateral attack achieves a more robust defense and helps avoid relapse.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Immune-stimulating drug before surgery shows promise in early-stage pancreatic cancer

Giving early-stage pancreatic cancer patients a CD40 immune-stimulating drug helped jumpstart a T cell attack to the notoriously stubborn tumor microenvironment before surgery and other treatments, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cell-based method for the regeneration of myelin

Direct reprogramming of pericytes in oligodendrocyte precursors as a potential basis for cell-based therapeutic strategy

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft