More genetic markers for inherited testicular cancer identified

A meta-analysis of nearly 200,000 men revealed 22 new genetic locations that could be susceptible to inherited testicular germ cell tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Studies uncover details of ‘exhausted’ immune cells in patients with chronic infections

Two new studies provide insights into T cell exhaustion, which could lead to potential strategies to overcome it.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Mapping of Genetic Control Elements in the Cerebellum

The mammalian cerebellum is key to motor control and contributes to many of the higher brain functions. In close collaboration with Prof. Dr Stefan Pfister of the Hopp Children’s Cancer Center Heidelberg, an international research team led by Prof. Dr Henrik Kaessmann from the Center for Molecular Biology of Heidelberg University has now decoded the genetic programmes that control the development of cerebellar cell types before and after birth.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Discovery within human cell cycle process to bring new understanding of cellular diseases

New research has uncovered an essential mechanism coordinating the processes of cell division and adhesion within humans. This discovery has profound potential for advancing understanding of cell adhesion signalling in cancerous tumor progression and metastasis.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New approach for cell therapy shows potential against solid tumors with KRAS mutations

A new technology for cellular immunotherapy showed promising anti-tumor activity in the lab against hard-to-treat cancers driven by the once-considered “undruggable” KRAS mutation, including lung, colorectal, and pancreatic.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

DNA tags enable blood-based tests to assess cancer treatment outcomes

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) shed into the blood was discovered in the late 1940s but with rapid advances in genomics and computational analytics in just the past few years, researchers now believe that studying tags, or modifications to this type of DNA, may lead to a better understanding of how to assess, and possibly modulate, treatment approaches for cancer and other diseases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New understanding of cell stability with potential to improve immune cell therapies

Researchers have developed two solutions with potential to overcome a key clinical limitation of immune cell therapies.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Potential role of ‘junk DNA’ sequence in aging, cancer

Researchers have recently identified a DNA region known as VNTR2-1 that appears to drive the activity of the telomerase gene, which has been shown to prevent aging in certain types of cells. Knowing how the telomerase gene is regulated and activated and why it is only active in certain cell types could someday be the key to understanding how humans age and how to stop the spread of cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New study provides clues to decades-old mystery about cell movement

A new study shows that the stiffness of protein fibers in tissues, like collagen, are a key component in controlling the movement of cells. The groundbreaking discovery provides the first proof of a theory from the early 1980s and could have a major impact on fields that study cell movement from regenerative medicine to cancer research.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Structural biology provides long-sought solution to innate immunity puzzle

Researchers report the first structural confirmation that endogenous — or self-made — molecules can set off innate immunity in mammals via a pair of immune cell proteins called the TLR4-MD-2 receptor complex. The work has wide-ranging implications for finding ways to treat and possibly prevent autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and antiphospholipid syndrome.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Ibrutinib effective treatment for difficult-to-treat forms of hairy cell leukemia, study finds

The oral targeted therapy drug ibrutinib is an effective treatment option for high-risk hairy cell leukemia, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Chromosomes separation under focus

During cell division, chromosomes are duplicated and separated so that one copy of each chromosome is inherited by each of the two emerging daughter cells. Correct distribution of chromosomes requires high accuracy and defects in this process can cause aberrant distribution of chromosomes and facilitate cancer development. By analyzing the structure of the protein responsible for chromosome separation, a team has shed light on the mechanisms controlling this essential player in cell division.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

C is for Vitamin C — a key ingredient for immune cell function

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) help control inflammation and autoimmunity in the body. Unfortunately, it has proven difficult to find the right molecular ingredients to induce stable iTregs. Now a new study reports that Vitamin C and TET proteins can work together to give Tregs their life-saving power.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.617 gives the immune system a hard time

Study with cell cultures shows that the mutant is less well inhibited by antibodies

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

MET amplification as driver for some non-small cell lung cancers

A study has helped define MET amplification as an actionable driver for some non-small cell lung cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

COR-101 is Inhibiting the Emerging “Indian” Variants of SARS-CoV-2 including “Delta”

The human recombinant anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody COR-101 was developed in close cooperation of Technische Universität Braunschweig, the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) and the biotech company YUMAB GmbH in Braunschweig. The antibody is currently undergoing phase Ib/II clinical trials for the treatment of moderate to severe COVID-19 by CORAT Therapeutics GmbH. The story of the discovery and development of this antibody was now published in the Journal “Cell Reports”.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

The virus trap: Hollow nano-objects made of DNA could trap viruses and render them harmless

To date, there are no effective antidotes against most virus infections. An interdisciplinary research team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now developed a new approach: they engulf and neutralize viruses with nano-capsules tailored from genetic material using the DNA origami method. The strategy has already been tested against hepatitis and adeno-associated viruses in cell cultures. It may also prove successful against corona viruses.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Sensing ‘junk’ RNA after chemotherapy enhances blood regeneration

Scientists reveal that during hematopoietic regeneration, RNA expressed from a part of the genome considered ‘junk DNA’ is used by hematopoietic stem cells to get activated and proliferate. The study shows that these so-called transposable elements make RNA after chemotherapy and activate an immune receptor which induces inflammatory signals enhancing hematopoietic stem cell cycling and thus participating in the regeneration of the hematopoietic system.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How do our cells react to starvation or stress?

Cells respond to starvation or stress by changing the composition of proteins on the cell surface. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne have now discovered that a protein complex called mTORC1 is a central coordinator of this process. These findings could be important in the future for the development of therapies for diseases in which the activity of this protein complex is known to be dysregulated, such as cancer, neurological or metabolic disorders or old age.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Stiffness of skin tissue determines the renewal capacity of stem cells

Old and young skin stem cells are both capable of renewing the skin and its hair follicles. A slower renewal turnover of aged skin and its hair follicles may be caused by the decreased elasticity of skin tissues surrounding the stem cells / New insights into the causes of aging published in ‘Nature Cell Biology’

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Die Erneuerungskapazität von Hautstammzellen hängt davon ab, wie elastisch das umliegende Gewebe ist

Sowohl alte als auch junge Hautstammzellen können Haut und Haarfollikel erneuern. Für die langsamere Erneuerung bei der gealterten Haut und ihrer Haarfollikel ist wahrscheinlich die geringere Elastizität des Hautgewebes, das die Stammzellen umgibt, verantwortlich / Neue Erkenntnisse zu den Ursachen des Alterns in ‘Nature Cell Biology’ veröffentlicht

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Unknown role – ATR protein regulates neuronal activity

The ATR protein plays an important role in the response to replication stress as a regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR) and controls cell viability. Mutations of ATR in humans lead to, among other pathologies, neurological defects; indicating a yet unknown role for ATR in non-dividing cells. Researchers from the Leibniz Institute on Aging (FLI) in Jena and the Section of Neuroimmunology of Jena University Hospital have shown that ATR deletion in neurons does not affect brain development and formation, but amplifies neuronal activity and increases susceptibility to epilepsy. This study identifies a physiological function of ATR, beyond its DDR role, in regulating neuronal activity.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Cancer: Immunotherapies without side effects?

Immunotherapy has revolutionized the field of cancer treatment. However, inflammatory reactions in healthy tissues frequently trigger side effects that can be serious. Scientists have succeeded in establishing the differences between deleterious immune reactions and those targeting tumor cells that are sought after. It appears that while the immune mechanisms are similar, the cell populations involved are different. This work makes it possible to envisage targeted and less dangerous treatments for cancer patients.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel microscopy method provides look into future of cell biology

What if a microscope allowed us to explore the 3D microcosm of blood vessels, nerves, and cancer cells instantaneously in virtual reality? What if it could provide views from multiple directions in real time without physically moving the specimen and worked up to 100 times faster than current technology?

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Manufacturing the core engine of cell division

It´s a cellular process going on since one billion years, yet we are not able to replicate it, nor to fully understand it. Mitosis, the mechanism of cell division that is so important for life, involves more than 100 proteins at its core. Now, the group of Prof. Dr. Andrea Musacchio from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology in Dortmund has been able to fully reconstitute the engine of the mitosis machinery, called kinetochore. Being able to model a functioning kinetochore is the first step towards the making of artificial chromosomes, that may one day be used to restore missing functions in cells.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft