Tangled messages: Tracing neural circuits to chemotherapy’s ‚constellation of side effects‘

Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy can experience severe side effects that persist long after treatments end. A new study has found a novel pathway for understanding why these debilitating conditions happen — and why scientists should focus on ‚all of the possible neural processes that deliver sensory or motor problems to a patient’s brain‘ and not just those that occur away from the center of the body.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Engineered nanomaterial captures off-target cancer drug to prevent tissue damage

Standard chemotherapies may efficiently kill cancer cells, but they also pose significant risks to healthy cells, resulting in secondary illness and a diminished quality of life for patients. To prevent the previously unavoidable damage, researchers have developed a new class of nanomaterials engineered to capture chemotherapy drugs before they interact with healthy tissue.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Chemotherapy may affect muscle cells at lower doses than previously thought

Previous research has found that chemotherapy can trigger muscle loss in people living with cancer, but a new study out of found it may also affect the way the body builds new muscle — and at lower doses than previously known, having potential implications for treatments and rehab programs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Shape-morphing microrobots deliver drugs to cancer cells

Chemotherapy successfully treats many forms of cancer, but the side effects can wreak havoc on the rest of the body. Delivering drugs directly to cancer cells could help reduce these unpleasant symptoms. Now, in a proof-of-concept study, researchers have made fish-shaped microrobots that are guided with magnets to cancer cells, where a pH change triggers them to open their mouths and release their chemotherapy cargo.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How alike are the cancer cells from a single patient?

Using an experimental system involving new genetic technology, researchers analyzed the gene expression signatures of a representative sample of barcoded leukemia cells. After implanting some of the leukemia cells in mice, they discovered that distinct gene expression signatures correlated with the various organs where the cancer cells ended up. They were also able to identify previously unknown genes that are involved in disease progression and chemotherapy resistance, which may offer new targets for treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Immunotherapy-chemotherapy treatment coupled with in-depth genomic analyses leads to improved survival for patients with mesothelioma

Combining the immunotherapy agent durvalumab with the chemotherapy agents pemetrexed and cisplatin or carboplatin may provide a new treatment option for patients who have inoperable pleural mesothelioma, a cancer of the tissues lining the lungs, according to a phase II clinical trial.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Ibrutinib improves survival for younger people with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

New evidence suggests that adding the targeted therapy ibrutinib (Imbruvica) to a standard chemotherapy regimen can improve how long some younger people with a specific form of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) live.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Chemo helps breast cancer cells get their ‘foot in the door’ to the lungs

A new study adds to the evidence that chemotherapy enhances cancer’s spread beyond the primary tumor, showing how one chemo drug allows breast cancer cells to squeeze through and attach to blood vessel linings in the lungs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer chemotherapy drug reverses Alzheimer’s symptoms in mice

A drug commonly used to treat cancer can restore memory and cognitive function in mice that display symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, new research has found. The drug, Axitinib, inhibits growth of new blood vessels in the brain — a feature shared by both cancer tumors and Alzheimer’s disease. This hallmark represents a new target for Alzheimer’s therapies. Mice that underwent the therapy not only exhibited a reduction in blood vessels and other Alzheimer’s markers in their brains, they also performed remarkably well in tests designed to measure learning and memory.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

An estrogen receptor that promotes cancer also causes drug resistance

Cancer cells proliferate despite a myriad of stresses — from oxygen deprivation to chemotherapy — that would kill any ordinary cell. Now, researchers have gained insight into how they may be doing this through the downstream activity of a powerful estrogen receptor. The discovery offers clues to overcoming resistance to therapies like tamoxifen that are used in many types of breast cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Chemotherapy drug puts young children with cancer at high risk of hearing loss

A chemotherapy drug known to cause hearing loss in children is more likely to do so the earlier in life children receive it, new UBC research has found. Cisplatin is a life-saving treatment for many children with cancer, but the study shows that the hearing of very young children is impacted early during treatment and is affected to a greater extent than that of older children.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A new approach to metastatic melanoma discovered

Combining chemotherapy with a BRAF oncogene inhibitor proves effective at treating this disease in a mouse model. This alternative paves the way toward a new approach for patients affected by this type of tumor, which has no cure in the most advanced stages or cases of relapse.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Sensing ‚junk‘ RNA after chemotherapy enhances blood regeneration

Scientists reveal that during hematopoietic regeneration, RNA expressed from a part of the genome considered ‚junk DNA‘ is used by hematopoietic stem cells to get activated and proliferate. The study shows that these so-called transposable elements make RNA after chemotherapy and activate an immune receptor which induces inflammatory signals enhancing hematopoietic stem cell cycling and thus participating in the regeneration of the hematopoietic system.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New findings offer improved therapy of early-stage, BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer

A new treatment has potential to improve the outcomes for patients with hereditary BRCA mutations and high-risk, early-stage breast cancer. These results represent the first time a PARP inhibitor has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of breast cancer returning in high-risk patients following completion of standard chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Stem cell drugs surprise researchers: Could lead to better drugs in the future

Chemotherapy destroys stem cells, which then cannot develop into immune cells and become part of the body’s defenses. There are drugs that can remedy this, but previously we did not know exactly how these drugs worked. Now, a new study details their function providing new knowledge that may improve stem cell transplantation and lead to better drug design in the future.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Good bacteria can temper chemotherapy side effects

A new study found that specific types of gut bacteria can protect other good bacteria from cancer treatments — mitigating harmful, drug-induced changes to the gut microbiome. By metabolizing chemotherapy drugs, the protective bacteria could temper short- and long-term side effects of treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

PARP inhibitor shrinks tumors in pancreatic cancer patients with mutations

More than two-thirds of pancreatic cancer patients harboring genetic mutations saw their tumor stop growing or shrink substantially after being switched from intensive chemotherapy to the PARP inhibitor rucaparib as a maintenance therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Microglia, Stockholm syndrome and miraculous cures in glioblastoma patients

University of Minnesota Medical School researchers revealed why some glioblastoma patients see exceptional benefits from chemotherapy and survive beyond expectations.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Chemo for glioblastoma may work better in morning than evening

An aggressive type of brain cancer, glioblastoma has no cure. Patients survive an average of 15 months after diagnosis, with fewer than 10% of patients surviving longer than five years. While researchers are investigating potential new therapies via ongoing clinical trials, a new study suggests that a minor adjustment to the current standard treatment — giving chemotherapy in the morning rather than the evening — could add a few months to patients‘ survival.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Double trouble for drug-resistant cancers

New research identifies chemotherapy-resistant cancers‘ escape mechanism, which offers new anti-cancer treatment options.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer cells may evade chemotherapy by going dormant

Cancer cells can dodge chemotherapy by entering a state that bears similarity to certain kinds of senescence, a type of ‚active hibernation‘ that enables them to weather the stress induced by aggressive treatments aimed at destroying them, according to a new study. These findings have implications for developing new drug combinations that could block senescence and make chemotherapy more effective.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Therapy sneaks into hard layer of pancreatic cancer tumor and destroys it from within

Researchers demonstrated that a new tumor-penetrating therapy could enhance the effects of chemotherapy, reduce the spread of pancreatic cancer and increase survival in animal models.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New inhibitor found to combat drug-resistant cancer cells

A new substance could improve the treatment of persistent cancers. Researchers have developed a new inhibitor that makes drug-resistant tumor cells respond again to chemotherapy. The new substance blocks a protein in the cancer cells that normally transports the cancer drugs back out of the cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Single cell sequencing opens new avenues for eradicating leukemia at its source

Cancer stem cells that elude conventional treatments like chemotherapy drive long-term cancer growth and relapse. These cells are difficult to isolate and study because of their low abundance and similarity to other stem cells. Researchers have created a new method that can distinguish cancer stem cells, mature cancer cells and otherwise healthy stem cells based on their genetics and gene expression. The findings open new avenues for cancer research personalised medicine.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Ionic liquid uniformly delivers chemotherapy to tumors while destroying cancerous tissue

Vascular and interventional radiologists report the development of a new ionic liquid formulation that killed cancer cells and allowed uniform distribution of a chemotherapy drug into liver tumors and other solid tumors in the lab. This discovery could solve a problem that has long plagued drug delivery to tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily