Integrating medical imaging and cancer biology with deep neural networks

Scientists have carried out a study investigating whether deep neural networks can represent associations between gene expression, histology, and CT-derived image features. They found that the network could not only reproduce previously reported associations but also identify new ones.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Vorsprung durch Forschung

Ob Tiger im CT oder Ultraschall-Untersuchungen beim Panda – Zoo und Tierpark Berlin sind froh, die Wissenschaftler*innen des Berliner Leibniz-Instituts für Zoo- und Wildtierforschung (Leibniz-IZW) stets mit Rat und Tat an ihrer Seite zu wissen. Die enge Zusammenarbeit der Einrichtungen soll nun durch den Neubau eines Erweiterungsgebäudes des Leibniz-IZW weiter ausgebaut werden.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

AI system detects SARS-CoV-2 on CT scans: DFKI presents method for image-based diagnosis of Corona

Apart from the commonly used PCR tests for the diagnosis of infections with SARS-CoV-2, the Corona virus can also be detected on computed tomography scans. With a new method of automated image recognition, this form of diagnosis can be refined and made more comprehensible for medical staff. In an international cooperation, the DFKI research department Interactive Machine Learning (IML) has developed an interactive AI system that, with a success rate of 92 percent, allows for one of the most precise automatic diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 using CT scans from a special, publicly available test data set in the world.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

KI-System erkennt SARS-CoV-2 auf CT-Scans: DFKI stellt Methode zur bildbasierten Diagnose von Corona vor

Neben den verbreiteten PCR-Tests zur Diagnose von Infektionen mit SARS-CoV-2 lässt sich das Coronavirus auch auf Computertomographie-Scans erkennen. Durch eine neue Methode in der automatisierten Bilderkennung kann diese Diagnoseform präzisiert und für das medizinische Personal nachvollziehbarer gemacht werden. In einer internationalen Kooperation hat der DFKI-Forschungsbereich Interaktives Maschinelles Lernen (IML) ein interaktives KI-System entwickelt, das mit einer Erfolgsrate von 92 Prozent auf einem speziellen, öffentlich verfügbaren Testdatensatz eine der weltweit präzisesten automatischen Diagnosen von SARS-CoV-2 anhand von CT-Scans ermöglicht.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

AI helps find signs of heart disease on lung cancer screens

Artificial intelligence (AI) provides an automated and accurate tool to measure a common marker of heart disease in patients getting chest CT scans for lung cancer screening, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Using artificial intelligence to determine whether immunotherapy is working

Currently, only about 20% of all cancer patients will actually benefit from costly immunotherapy. New research can now determine which ones are in that category, simply by analyzing previously unseen changes in patterns in CT scans taken when the lung cancer is first diagnosed compared to scans taken after the first 2-3 cycles of immunotherapy treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Low doses of radiation promote cancer-capable cells

New research finds that low doses of radiation equivalent to three CT scans, which are considered safe, give cancer-capable cells a competitive advantage over normal cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Increase in resolution, scale takes CT scanning and diagnosis to the next level

Researchers have developed a new, 3D tissue imaging technique, called X-ray histotomography. The technique allows researchers to study the details of cells in a zebrafish tissue sample without having to cut it into slices.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New radiotracer can identify nearly 30 types of cancer

A novel class of radiopharmaceuticals has proven effective in non-invasively identifying nearly 30 types of malignant tumors. Using 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT, researchers were able to image the tumors with very high uptake and image contrast, paving the way for new applications in tumor characterization, staging and therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Gold macht im CT unsichtbare Oberflächen sichtbar

Neue Methode zur Darstellung von bisher unsichtbaren Oberflächendetails mittels Computertomographie / Kölner und Bonner Forscher bedampfen Proben mit Gold

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Nuclear medicine imaging monitors effectiveness of therapy for melanoma patients

Nuclear medicine imaging with PET/CT can monitor the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment for metastatic melanoma and predict outcome. In this way, a patient’s therapy can be more effectively tailored to his or her personal response.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Building a bigger brain

A gene, found only in humans and active in the cerebral cortex, can enlarge the ferret brain (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Doped by food

Dopamine release regulates our eating behaviour

When it comes to our food intake, we are only partially in control. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research in Cologne were able to show that our gastrointestinal tract is in constant contact with the brain and uses reward stimuli to control our desire for food. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Stopping cancer from recruiting immune system double agents

Cancerous tumors trick myeloid cells, an important part of the immune system, into perceiving them as a damaged part of the body; the tumors actually put myeloid cells to work helping them grow and metastasize (spread). Researchers have now discovered a potential therapy that can disrupt this recruitment and abnormal function of myeloid cells in laboratory mice. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

New mechanism to ‚activate‘ the immune system against cancer

A new mechanism for activating the immune system against cancer cells allows immune cells to detect and destroy cancer cells better than before, and most effectively in lung cancer and melanoma. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Essential amino acid in humans, methionine, controls cell growth

A recent study from the Laxman lab elucidates how a small metabolite and amino acid, methionine, acts as a growth signal for cells, by setting into motion a metabolic program for cell proliferation. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

No egg is like another: Female age and laying order drive variation of egg quality in blue tits

Little more than fifty years after the German ornithologist Wolfgang Makatsch published his book entitled “No egg is like another” (Kein Ei gleicht dem anderen), new research at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry and the University of Hohenheim reveals exactly how right he was. The study describes for the first time the egg albumen and yolk proteomes (that is, all measurable proteins) of a common songbird, the blue tit. It shows that breeding females can fine tune their eggs’ composition to the needs of their young. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Experimental treatment shows promise against triple-negative breast cancer

A naturally occurring protein called Tinagl1 reduced the spread of triple-negative breast cancer in a study conducted in mice. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Sex differences identified in deadly brain tumors

More males get, and die of, the deadly brain cancer glioblastoma than females. A team of researchers has identified distinct molecular signatures of glioblastoma in men and women that help explain disparities in patients‘ response to treatment and survival. The research suggests that tailoring treatments to men and women with glioblastoma based on the molecular subtypes of their tumors may improve survival for all patients. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

AI predicts cancer patients‘ symptoms

Doctors could get a head start treating cancer thanks to new AI that is able to predict symptoms and their severity throughout the course of a patient’s treatment. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Tumors backfire on chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is an effective treatment for breast cancer, yet some patients develop metastasis in spite of it. Researchers have now discovered that chemotherapy-treated mammary tumors produce small vesicles that may help them spread to other organs. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Unmuting large silent genes lets bacteria produce new molecules, potential drug candidates

By enticing away the repressors dampening unexpressed, silent genes in Streptomyces bacteria, researchers at the have unlocked several large gene clusters for new natural products. Since many antibiotics, anti-cancer agents and other drugs have been derived from genes readily expressed in Streptomyces, the researchers hope that unsilencing genes that have not previously been expressed in the lab will yield additional candidates in the search for new antimicrobial drugs. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Gene Therapy – Ready for the Market?

The last years were very promising for gene therapeutic approaches. A number of successful treatments of cancer or rare diseases were reported, as well as FDA approval of first gene therapeutic products. Until now, these pioneering treatments have been used primarily when conventional therapies reach their limits. Development, manufacturing, quality control and clinical application of gene therapeutic products are very challenging – and still far from routine. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Gene Therapy – Ready for the Market?

Are the new and promising gene therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cancer or rare diseases ready for the market yet? Internationally renowned keynote speakers will set the spotlight on the challenges in the production, quality control, regulatory issues and clinical implementation of gene therapeutic products. Papers can be submitted until 3 September 2018. (Mehr in: Veranstaltungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Breaking down AGEs: Insight into how lifestyle drives ER-positive breast cancer

Consumption of processed foods high in sugar and fat increase levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Researchers report that AGE levels are higher in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive than ER-negative breast cancer. Addition of AGEs caused breast cancer cells, whose growth had previously been controlled by tamoxifen, to begin to grow again. This suggests that patients with high AGEs may be less likely to respond to tamoxifen treatment. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)