Process for eliminating unneeded cells may also protect against cancer

Biologists find cell extrusion, a process that helps organisms eliminated unneeded cells, is triggered when cells can’t replicate their DNA during cell division. In humans, extrusion may serve as a way for the body to eliminate cancerous or precancerous cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Zwischen Pest und Typhus – die Hansestadt Lübeck im 14. Jahrhundert

Einem Forschungsteam der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (CAU) ist es gelungen, mithilfe der Analyse alter DNA (aDNA) Einblick in die Entwicklung und Geschichte von Epidemien im historischen Lübeck zu gewinnen.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Single-cell CRISPR technology deciphers role of chromatin accessibility in cancer

Researchers have developed CRISPR-sciATAC, a novel integrative genetic screening platform that jointly captures CRISPR gene perturbations and single-cell chromatin accessibility genome-wide. The new method harnesses the programmability of the gene editing system CRISPR to knock-out nearly all chromatin-related genes in parallel, offering researchers deeper insights into the role of DNA accessibility in cancer and in rare diseases involving chromatin.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Major advance enables study of genetic mutations in any tissue

For the first time, scientists are able to study changes in the DNA of any human tissue, following the resolution of long-standing technical challenges. The new method, called nanorate sequencing (NanoSeq), makes it possible to study how genetic changes occur in human tissues with unprecedented accuracy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How oxygen radicals protect against cancer

Oxygen radicals in the body are generally considered dangerous because they can trigger something called oxidative stress, which is associated with the development of many chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. In studies on mice, scientists have now discovered how oxygen radicals, conversely, can also reduce the risk of cancer and mitigate damage to the hereditary molecule DNA.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

DNA building blocks regulate inflammation

Mitochondria are the energy suppliers of our cells and have their own genetic material, which triggers an inflammatory response when released into the cell’s interior. Some cardiac and neurodegenerative diseases as well as the ageing process are linked to the mitochondrial genome. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing and the CECAD Cluster of Excellence in Ageing research have investigated the reasons for the release of mitochondrial genetic material and found a direct link to cellular metabolism: when the cell’s DNA building blocks are in short supply, mitochondria release their genetic material and trigger inflammation.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Large-scale genetic study sheds light on the causes of hemorrhoids

International research team identified pathophysiological mechanisms of hemorrhoidal disease by studying the DNA of nearly one million people. / Publication in Gut.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Umfangreiche Gen-Studie bringt neue Erkenntnisse zu den Ursachen von „Hämorrhoiden“

DNA-Analysen von fast einer Million Menschen erlauben internationalem Forschungsteam unter Beteiligung des Exzellenzclusters PMI Einblicke in Krankheitsmechanismen der bisher kaum erforschten Volkskrankheit. Publikation in Gut.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Zellkern-Erbgut aus Höhlensedimenten gibt Einblicke in unsere Vergangenheit

Forschern vom Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie in Leipzig ist es erstmalig gelungen, chromosomale DNA von Neandertalern aus Höhlensedimenten zu isolieren und zu analysieren. Benjamin Vernot und Kollegen haben Zellkern-DNA von Neandertalern aus Höhlenablagerungen in Nordspanien und Südsibirien untersucht und konnten feststellen, dass dort vor etwa 100.000 Jahren eine Population durch eine andere ersetzt wurde. Die Untersuchung chromosomaler DNA aus Sedimenten kann Forschern auch an anderen Fundstätten neue Einblicke in die menschliche Vergangenheit geben, ohne dass sie auf den Fund fossiler Knochen und Zähne angewiesen sind.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

165 new cancer genes identified with the help of machine learning

A new algorithm can predict which genes cause cancer, even if their DNA sequence is not changed. A team of researchers combined a wide variety of data, analyzed it with ‘Artificial Intelligence’ and identified numerous cancer genes. This opens up new perspectives for targeted cancer therapy in personalized medicine and for the development of biomarkers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

More than the sum of mutations – 165 new cancer genes identified with the help of machine learning

A new algorithm can predict which genes cause cancer, even if their DNA sequence is not changed. A team of researchers in Berlin combined a wide variety of data, analyzed it with “Artificial Intelligence” and identified numerous cancer genes. This opens up new perspectives for targeted cancer therapy in personalized medicine and for the development of biomarkers.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Mehr als die Summe der Mutationen – 165 neue Krebsgene mit Hilfe maschinellen Lernens identifiziert

Ein neuer Algorithmus sagt Gene vorher, die an der Entstehung von Krebs beteiligt sein können, deren DNA-Sequenz jedoch nicht zwangsläufig verändert ist. Ein Berliner Forschungsteam kombinierte unterschiedlichste Daten, analysierte sie mit „künstlicher Intelligenz“ und identifizierte so zahlreiche Krebsgene. Für die gezielte Krebstherapie in der personalisierten Medizin sowie für die Entwicklung von Biomarkern ergeben sich so neue Perspektiven.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Scientists discover ‘jumping’ genes that can protect against blood cancers

New research has uncovered a surprising role for so-called ‘jumping’ genes that are a source of genetic mutations responsible for a number of human diseases. Scientists made the unexpected discovery that these DNA sequences, also known as transposons, can protect against certain blood cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How to tame a restless genome

LTR retrotransposons are small stretches of DNA that can move around the genome. Researchers figured out how cells keep these ‘jumping genes’ anchored, preventing them from landing in the wrong place.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Natural History Museum Vienna to continue coordinating the ABOL project in Austria for a further three years

The Austria-wide initiative ABOL (Austrian Barcode Of Life, www.abol.ac.at) is now entering its third phase. In light of the current biodiversity crisis, the availability of data on biodiversity has become hugely important. ABOL not only coordinates the recording of genetic data from animals, plants, and fungi in Austria using DNA barcoding but is also involved in European and global projects to document biodiversity. The Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research has announced that it will continue to finance the NHM Vienna’s coordination of ABOL for the next three years.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Das Naturhistorische Museum koordiniert das Projekt ABOL österreichweit für weitere drei Jahre

Die österreichweite Initiative ABOL (Austrian Barcode Of Life, www.abol.ac.at) startet in die dritte Phase. Angesichts der aktuellen Biodiversitätskrise hat die Verfügbarkeit von Biodiversitätsdaten enorme Bedeutung erlangt. ABOL koordiniert nicht nur die genetische Erfassung der in Österreich vorkommenden Tier-, Pflanzen- und Pilzarten mittels DNA-Barcoding, sondern engagiert sich auch in europäischen und globalen Projekten zur Erfassung der Biodiversität. Die ABOL-Koordination wird für die nächsten drei Jahre weiterhin vom Bundeministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Forschung finanziert.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New test traces DNA origins to monitor transplant rejection and reveal hidden cancers

A new technique that can trace which tissues and organs the DNA in our blood comes from has just been reported.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Deluge of DNA changes drives progression of fatal melanomas

Australian researchers have revealed how melanoma cells are flooded with DNA changes as this skin cancer progresses from early, treatable stages through to fatal end-stage disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Does bat DNA hold the answer to aging well?

A new study published in Nature Communications shows that the age of bats can be predicted with high accuracy based on DNA methylation patterns. A global team of researchers with the participation of the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin examined the number of methyl groups (CH3) bound to the DNA of 26 bat species. Genome-wide methylation patterns that correlate with bat longevity also suggest that their longevity results from an enhanced immune response and suppression of cancer.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Artificial intelligence deciphers genetic instructions: Deep learning algorithms reveal rules of gene regulation

With the help of artificial intelligence (AI) a German-American team of scientists deciphered some of the more elusive instructions encoded in DNA. Their neural network trained on high-resolution maps of protein-DNA interactions uncovers subtle DNA sequence patterns throughout the genome, thus providing a deeper understanding of how these sequences are organized to regulate genes.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Künstliche Intelligenz entschlüsselt genetische Codes: Deep-Learning-Algorithmen enthüllen Regeln der Genregulation

Mit Hilfe künstlicher Intelligenz (KI) ist es einem deutsch-amerikanischen Wissenschaftsteam gelungen, komplexe Anweisungen der Genregulation in der DNA zu entschlüsseln. Sie trainierten ihr neuronales Netzwerk mit hochauflösenden Protein-DNA-Bindungsdaten . Mit Hilfe neu entwickelter Techniken zur Modellinterpretation gelang es ihnen, die relevanten DNA-Sequenzmuster aufzudecken. Die Ergebnisse liefern ein tieferes Verständnis dafür, wie DNA Sequenzen organisiert sind, um Gene zu regulieren.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Green tea compound aids p53, ‘guardian of the genome’ and tumor suppressor

An antioxidant found in green tea may increase levels of p53, a natural anti-cancer protein, known as the ”guardian of the genome” for its ability to repair DNA damage or destroy cancerous cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

DNA of Transposable Elements Identified as Cause for Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a blinding disease that affects about 7.4 Million individuals in Germany. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut as part of an international consortium have uncovered a mechanism that is based on the activation of mobile genetic elements (retrotransposons) in the genome and leads to damage and death of cells of the retina in patients suffering from dry AMD. A meta-analysis of health insurance data was carried out, confirming these findings. PNAS reports on these results in its online edition of 01 February 2021.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

DNA transponierbarer Elemente als Ursache für altersbedingte Makuladegeneration (AMD) identifiziert

Die altersbedingte trockene Makuladegeneration (AMD) ist eine Augenerkrankung, die zum Verlust des Sehvermögens führt und an der ca. 7,4 Millionen Menschen in Deutschland leiden. Forschende des Paul-Ehrlich-Instituts haben in einem internationalen Forschungsverbund einen grundlegenden Mechanismus aufgeklärt, der über die Aktivierung im Genom vorhandener mobiler genetischer Elemente (Retrotransposons) dazu führen kann, dass bei trockener AMD Zellen in der Netzhaut des Auges absterben. Eine ebenfalls durchgeführte Metanalyse von Behandlungsdaten mit Medikamenten, die diesen Mechanismus unterbinden, untermauert dies. Über die Ergebnisse berichtet PNAS in seiner Online-Ausgabe vom 01.02.2021.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

“PopDel” detects deletions in our genomes

The human genome contains roughly three million letters. On average, the genome sequences of any two people differ from each other by about one in every 1,000 letters. Yet different variants occur, from substituted letters to entire missing sections of DNA. Scientists from the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and the Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology (RCI) have teamed up with Icelandic researchers to develop software that reliably and quickly identifies large deletions in ten-thousands of genomes simultaneously. The researchers have now published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft