Cancer survivors face elevated heart disease risk

A new study has found that about that 35% of Americans with a cancer history had an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease in the next decade, compared with about 23% of those who didn’t have cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Study links exposure to nighttime artificial lights with elevated thyroid cancer risk

People living in regions with high levels of outdoor artificial light at night may face a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The new face of the Antarctic

In the future, the Antarctic could become a greener place and be colonised by new species. At the same time, some species will likely disappear.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Breast cancer survivors are less likely to get pregnant, but often have healthy babies and good long-term health

A large meta-analysis of breast cancer survivors of childbearing age indicated that they are less likely than the general public to get pregnant, and they face higher risk of certain complications such as preterm labor. However, most survivors who do get pregnant deliver healthy babies and have no adverse effects on their long-term survival, according to new data.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Birth defects linked to greater risk of cancer in later life

People born with major birth defects face a higher risk of cancer throughout life, although the relative risk is greatest in childhood and then declines, finds a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Using walls to navigate the room

We perceive the world relative to our own body from a self-centered perspective. Yet our brain is able to transform this information into a world-centered, cognitive map of the environment, guiding us independent of where we look or the direction we face. The mechanism behind this has remained unsolved for decades. Now scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Goethe University Frankfurt discover a neural circuit in the rodent brain that may play a key role in translating both perspectives and help the animal to detect boundaries to avoid collision.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Smaller habitats worse than expected for biodiversity

Biodiversity’s ongoing global decline has prompted policies to protect and restore habitats to minimize animal and plant extinctions. However, biodiversity forecasts used to inform these policies are usually based on assumptions of a simple theoretical model describing how the number of species changes with the amount of habitat. A new study published in the journal Nature shows that the application of this theoretical model underestimates how many species go locally extinct when habitats are lost. Scientists from Leipzig and Halle used data from 123 studies from across the world to set the path for the next generation of biodiversity forecasts in the face of habitat loss and restoration.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Triple negative breast cancer meets its match

One member of a larger family of oxygen sensing enzymes could offer a viable target for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), researchers report in a new study. The findings might offer hope to this subset of patients who have few effective treatment options and often face a poor prognosis.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Same father, same face

Artificial intelligence reveals mechanism for kin selection in a wild primate

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Image analysis technique provides better understanding of heart cell defects

Many patients with heart disease face limited treatment options. Fortunately, stem cell biology has enabled researchers to produce large numbers of cardiomyocytes, which may be used in drug screens and cell-based therapies. However, current image analysis techniques don’t allow researchers to analyze heterogeneous, multidirectional, striated myofibrils typical of immature cells. Researchers showcase an algorithm that combines gradient methods with fast Fourier transforms to quantify myofibril structures in heart cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Women firefighters face high exposure to toxic PFAS chemicals

San Francisco’s women firefighters are exposed to higher levels of certain toxic PFAS chemicals than women working in downtown San Francisco offices, shows a new study. The study represents one of the first published results from the Women Firefighter Biomonitoring Collaborative, a long-term investigation into breast cancer risks faced by women firefighters.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Kiss and run: How cells sort and recycle their components

What can be reused and what can be disposed of? Cells also face this tricky task. Researchers from the Biozentrum of the University of Basel have now discovered a cellular machine, called FERARI, that sorts out usable proteins for recycling. In Nature Cell Biology, they explain how FERARI works and why it is so special.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Men with breast cancer face high mortality rates

Men with breast cancer are more likely to die than their female counterparts, across all stages of disease, with the disparity persisting even when clinical characteristics, such as cancer types, treatment and access to care are considered, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How Plants Measure Their CO2 Uptake

Plants face a dilemma in dry conditions: they have to seal themselves off to prevent losing too much water but this also limits their uptake of carbon dioxide. A sensory network assures that the plant strikes the right balance.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Examining the link between caste and under-five mortality in India

In India, children that belong to disadvantaged castes face a much higher likelihood of not living past their fifth birthday than their counterparts in non-deprived castes. IIASA researchers examined the association between castes and under-five mortality in an effort to help reduce the burden of under-five deaths in the country.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Survivors of breast cancer face increased risk of heart disease

Thanks to advanced medical treatments, women diagnosed with breast cancer today will likely survive the disease. However, some treatment options put these women at greater risk for a number of other health problems. A new study shows that postmenopausal women with breast cancer are at greater risk for developing heart disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Research decodes one way cancer survives treatment, proposes a way to prevent it

Cancer cells have various tricks up their metaphorical sleeves to survive in the face of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other cancer treatments. Now researchers have decoded one of those tricks using cell lines and patient-derived cancer cells, and proposed a way to resensitize breast cancer cells to treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer survivors face significant hardships related to medical bills

New research indicates that cancer survivors carry greater financial burdens related to medical debt payments and bills compared with individuals without a cancer history, with the greatest hardships in younger survivors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Great tits detox at the expense of a lower life expectancy

Some males of great tits that faced higher energetic costs during their reproductive phase upregulated the concentration of an enzyme important for detoxifying free radicals. Together with other physiological reactions like the loss of weight and a higher level of stress hormones, harder-working birds compensated higher energetic demands in a way that had no direct consequences for their offspring or their own survival. This is what researchers of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology have found. However, birds with a higher concentration of the enzyme had a lower overwinter survival. This seems to be the physiological key mediating the trade-off between reproduction and survival. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

How frogs’ tongues become sticky

Complex techniques that were used to analyze the surface interface between frog tongue and prey, have revealed protein reordering in response to tongue retraction. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

How hantaviruses infect lung cells

Hantaviruses cause severe and sometimes fatal respiratory infections, but how they infect lung cells has been a mystery. Researchers report that hantaviruses gain entry to lung cells by ‘unlocking’ a cell-surface receptor called protocadherin-1 (PCDH1). Deleting this receptor made lab animals highly resistant to infection. The findings show that targeting PCDH1 could be a useful strategy against deadly hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. (Mehr in: Cancer News — ScienceDaily)

Jacobs University researchers discover how immune proteins group together

The surface of our body cells is covered in proteins that have many tasks. Some of these proteins, the so-called MHC proteins, help the immune system to recognize whether the cell that carries them has become infected by a virus or a bacterium, or whether it has even become part of a tumor. So, the MHC proteins are crucially important to keep us healthy. Researchers at Jacobs University Bremen have now developed a versatile method that can help to understand the interaction of these proteins. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Like the earthworm: new breathing material lubricates itself when needed

Earthworms are always clean, even if they come from moist, sticky soil. They owe this to a dirt-repellent, lubricating layer, which forms itself again and again on its skin. Researchers at INM have now artificially recreated this system of nature: They developed a material with a surface structure that provides itself with lubricant whenever pressure is applied. Because the lubricated material reduces friction and prevents the growth of microbes, scientists can envision numerous applications in industry and biomedicine. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Rauchen ist Leitthema im Bundesgesundheitsblatt

Wer raucht denn noch? Wie gefährlich sind E-Zigaretten? Wie funktionieren Tabakerhitzer? Was ist die Smokerface-Kampagne? „Rauchverhalten in Deutschland: Trends, Produkte, Prävention“ ist Leitthema in der November-Ausgabe des Bundesgesundheitsblatts. Insgesamt elf Beiträge bieten einen Überblick über Situation und Trends beim Tabakkonsum, bei elektronischen Inhalationsprodukten und bei der Tabakprävention. „Würde in Deutschland niemand rauchen, wäre die wichtigste vermeidbare Ursache für chronische Erkrankungen und vorzeitigen Tod in unserem Land beseitigt“, betont Lothar H. Wieler, Präsident des Robert Koch-Instituts. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)

Karrierewege für Biowissenschaftler – Erfolgsgeschichten zum Nachlesen bereits in zehnter Auflage

Das Berufsprofil „Biowissenschaftler“ bzw. „Biowissenschaftlerin“ ist facettenreich und bietet viele spannende Tätigkeitsfelder. Studierenden ebenso wie Berufseinsteigern und -einsteigerinnen fällt der Überblick daher nicht leicht. Orientierungshilfe bietet die vom Verband Biologie, Biowissenschaften und Biomedizin in Kooperation mit der Austrian Biologist Association herausgegebene Publikation „Perspektiven – Berufsbilder von und für Biologen und Biowissenschaftler“. In der jüngst erschienenen zehnten, komplett überarbeiteten Auflage berichten 78 Biowissenschaftlerinnen und Biowissenschaftler von ihrem ganz persönlichen Karriereweg und geben Tipps, damit der Berufseinstieg gelingt. (Mehr in: Pressemitteilungen – idw – Informationsdienst Wissenschaft)