Real-time insights into the inner life of plants: New biosensor makes control hormone auxin visible in cells

The hormone auxin is of central importance for the development of plants. Scientists at the University of Bayreuth and the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in Tübingen have now developed a novel sensor that makes the spatial distribution of auxin in the cells of living plants visible in real time. The sensor opens up completely new insights into the inner workings of plants for researchers. Moreover, the influences of changing environmental conditions on growth can now also be quickly detected. The team presents its research results in the journal Nature.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Genomic test helps estimate risk of prostate cancer metastasis, death

A commercially available genomic test may help oncologists better determine which patients with recurrent prostate cancer may benefit from hormone therapy, according to new research.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Imaging identifies breast cancer patients unlikely to benefit from hormone therapy

Hormone therapy can be very effective for so-called estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. But it only works for a little more than half of women who receive the treatment. In a small study, researchers found that women whose tumors did not respond to a one-day estrogen challenge did not benefit from hormone therapy. The findings could help doctors choose treatments most likely to help their patients.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Plants on Aspirin

Researchers at IST Austria gain deeper knowledge of plant growth by treating seedlings with painkillers like Aspirin and the like. New study published in Cell Reports.
For centuries humans were using willow barks to treat a headache or an inflamed tooth. Later, the active ingredient, the plant hormone salicylic acid, was used to develop painkillers like Aspirin. But what happens, if plants are treated with these painkillers? By doing so, Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria discovered an unexpected bioactivity of human pharmaceuticals in plants. The scientists published their study in the journal Cell Reports.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New estimates of breast cancer risks associated with HRT

A new study provides new estimates of the increased risks of breast cancer associated with use of different hormone replacement therapy (HRT) preparations.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Molecular compass for cell orientation

Plants have veins that transport nutrients through their body. These veins are highly organized. The hormone auxin travels directionally from cell-to-cell and provides cells with positional information, coordinating them during vein formation and regeneration. Scientists at IST Austria now discovered how cells translate auxin signals into forming a complex system of veins. This phenomenon also applies to wound healing and might lead to more mechanically resistant plants and further agricultural implications.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Advanced prostate cancer has an unexpected weakness that can be targeted by drugs

Researchers reported that the SUCLA2 gene is frequently involved in the deletion of the tumor suppressor gene RB1 in advanced prostate cancer. RB1 deletion makes cells resistant to hormone therapy but SUCLA2 deletion induces a metabolic weakness. The study showed that thymoquinone selectively killed SUCLA2-deficient prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The findings highlight a vulnerability of advanced prostate cancer cells that can be targeted by drugs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Echtzeitbeobachtung von Signalübertragung in Proteinen liefern neue Erkenntnisse für Medikamentenforschung

Proteine geben innerhalb des menschlichen Körpers Informationen und Signale, indem sie ihre Strukturen verändern: So binden zum Beispiel Hormone an für sie vorgesehene Zielproteine, wodurch sie dort eine Strukturveränderung hervorrufen, die wiederum an anderer Stelle auf der Oberfläche des Proteins neue Bindestellen für andere Proteine bildet. Diese Kopplung von unterschiedlichen, voneinander entfernten Bindestellen bezeichnen Forschende als Allosterie. Eine Unterbrechung dieser Kopplung führt dazu, dass Signale nicht weitergeleitet werden.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Fasting diet could boost breast cancer therapy

A team of scientists has found that a fasting-mimicking diet combined with hormone therapy has the potential to help treat breast cancer, according to newly published animal studies and small clinical trials in humans.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Blueprint of Oxytocin Receptor Facilitates Development of New Autism Drugs

Oxytocin plays a role in various mental health and sexual reproduction disorders. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now determined the three-dimensional structure of the oxytocin receptor to which the hormone binds. This knowledge could promote the development of novel drugs to treat a variety of diseases.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New clues from fruit flies about the critical role of sex hormones in stem cell control

In one of the first studies addressing the role of sex hormones’ impact on stem cells in the gut, scientists outline new insights showing how a steroidal sex hormone, ecdysone, drastically alters the way intestinal stem cells behave, ultimately affecting the overarching structure and function of this critical organ.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Age research: A low level of the stress hormone cortisol contributes to the ageing process

Why do we age? What exactly is happening in our bodies? And can we do anything about it? Mankind has sought answers to these questions since time immemorial. While the pharmaceutical scientists Alexandra K. Kiemer and Jessica Hoppstädter from Saarland University are not claiming to have solved this ancient problem, they have uncovered processes within our immune system that contribute to ageing. Kiemer and Hoppstädter have shown that low levels of the hormone cortisol and the protein known as GILZ can trigger chronic inflammatory responses in the body. The results have been published in the journal Aging Cell, doi:

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Behavioural biologists at Münster University reveal advantageous hormonal changes in guinea pigs in a new social

It has been known for some time now – especially as a result of research in guinea pigs – that the social environment during adolescence, i.e. the period from late childhood through puberty into adulthood, has a considerable impact on how individuals behave in later life. Male guinea pigs, for example, which grew up only with a female during this period, are particularly aggressive towards unfamiliar males. Behavioural biologists at Münster University have now been able to demonstrate for the first time that males are still able to adapt their hormone systems to changes in their social environment in adulthood.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Wounded plants: how they coordinate their healing

When we cut our fingers, blood rushes out of the wound to close it. However, the vegetable, we just wanted to slice and dice, would have reacted utterly different to this injury. Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) investigated how plant cells heal wounds. In their results, published in PNAS on June 15, the researchers discovered that the hormone Auxin and pressure changes are crucial to regeneration.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

What Does the “Love Hormone” Do? It’s Complicated

A study of mice in a semi-natural setting shows how the hormone oxytocin can amplify aggression as well as friendliness

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Killing ‘sleeper cells’ may enhance breast cancer therapy

The anti-cancer medicine venetoclax could improve the current therapy for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, according to preclinical studies. The promising preclinical results for this ‘triple therapy’ have underpinned a phase 1 clinical trial in Melbourne, Australia, that is combining venetoclax with hormone therapy and CDK4/6 inhibitors in patients with ER+ breast cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Coronavirus: Das schwerere Leiden der Männer

In Staaten weltweit sterben Männer häufiger an Covid-19 als Frauen. Forscher untersuchen, woran genau das liegt – neben ungesunden Verhaltensweisen haben sie auch Hormone in Verdacht.

Quelle: SPIEGEL ONLINE

Brain Insulin Sensitivity Determines Body Weight and Fat Distribution

Just where fat is deposited in the body and to what degree a person may benefit from a lifestyle intervention depends, among other things, on how sensitive the brain is to insulin. If the person’s brain responds sensitively to the hormone, a significant amount of weight can be lost and unhealthy visceral fat reduced. If the person’s brain responds only slightly or not at all to insulin, the person only loses some weight at the beginning of the intervention and then experiences weight regain. These are the results of a long-term study by the German Center for Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München and Tübingen University Hospital which has now been published in Nature Communications.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Poop instead of needle prick: New, simpler method to measure hormones

Hormone levels are usually measured using blood sampling, as alternative methods must still be established. A research team from Vetmeduni Vienna has now achieved a decisive breakthrough in the measurement of hormone levels with the development of a non-invasive method to measure testosterone in the excreta of mice. The results were published in the journal Animals. The new technique can be applied in various research areas such as reproduction, biomedicine, behaviour and animal welfare.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Reducing the side-effects of prostate hormone therapy with exercise

A prescription of short-term exercise for patients with advanced prostate cancer could help to reduce the side-effects of hormone therapy, according to new research. The trial aimed to reduce the adverse side-effects of hormone therapy such as weight gain and an increased risk of heart problems. The results show that a three month programme of aerobic and resistance training intervention prevented adverse changes in cardiopulmonary fitness and fatigue

Quelle: Sciencedaily

What and how much we eat might change our internal clocks and hormone responses

For the first time, a study led by researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München and the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD) shows how glucocorticoid hormones, such as cortisol, control sugar and fat levels differently during day and night, feeding and fasting, rest and activity, over the course of 24 hours

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

High levels of two hormones in the blood raise prostate cancer risk

Men with higher levels of ‘free’ testosterone and a growth hormone in their blood are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, according to research presented at the 2019 NCRI Cancer Conference.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A new route to blocking children’s bone cancer

A study in mice showed that reducing a particular hormone signal keeps the cancer from growing and spreading.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Trial finds high-dose radiation effective for men whose prostate cancer has spread

A randomized clinical trial of targeted, high-dose radiation for men with oligometastatic prostate cancer has shown the treatment to be an effective and safe option for patients who wish to delay hormone-suppression therapy. The phase II trial found that radiation therapy can generate an immune system response not previously believed possible in this type of cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer incidence

New research suggest that all types of MHT, except topical vaginal estrogens, are associated with increased risks of breast cancer, and that the risks are greater for users of estrogen-progestagen hormone therapy than for estrogen-only hormone therapy. For estrogen-progestagen therapy, the risks were greater if the progestagen was included daily rather than intermittently (eg, for 10-14 days per month).

Quelle: Sciencedaily