People at high genetic risk for colorectal cancer benefit more from lifestyle changes

People with a high polygenic risk score for colorectal cancer could benefit more at preventing the disease by leading healthy lifestyles than those at lower genetic risk, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New pre-clinical model could hold the key to better HIV treatments

Researchers have developed a unique pre-clinical model that enables the study of long-term HIV infection, and the testing of new therapies aimed at curing the disease.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New research optimizes body’s own immune system to fight cancer

A new study shows how engineered immune cells move faster to attack tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Screening for ovarian cancer did not reduce early deaths

The latest analysis looked at data from more than 200,000 women aged 50-74 at recruitment who were followed up for an average of 16 years. The women were randomly allocated to one of three groups: no screening, annual screening using an ultrasound scan, and annual multimodal screening involving a blood test followed by an ultrasound scan as a second line test.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Obesity slows progress against cancer deaths, study suggests

A new study suggests that heart disease and obesity-associated cancer mortality rates have continued to improve, but at a slowing pace.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Hydrogen peroxide-producing drug boosts cancer-killing effect of radiotherapy

A small drug molecule that appears to protect normal tissue from the damaging effects of radiation, may simultaneously be able to boost the cancer-killing effect of radiation therapy, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer has ripple effect on distant tissues

A new study with zebrafish shows that a deadly form of skin cancer — melanoma — alters the metabolism of healthy tissues elsewhere in the body. The research suggests that these other tissues could potentially be targeted to help treat cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists show how to attack the ‘fortress’ surrounding pancreatic cancer tumors

Tackling the scar tissue that shields pancreatic tumors from effective drug access is a promising advance in a notoriously hard-to-treat cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Mitochondrial enzyme found to block cell death pathway points to new cancer treatment strategy

Researchers have discovered a new role for the DHODH enzyme in blocking a form of cell death called ferroptosis. Preclinical findings suggest that targeting DHODH could restore cell death and inhibit tumor growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

All gas, no brakes: Testosterone may act as ‘brake pedal’ on immune response

Researchers have investigated the role that hormones play in male and female inflammatory responses. In a new study, he found that testosterone may protect against stomach inflammation.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Low-dose, four-drug combo blocks cancer spread in mice

Low doses of a four-drug combination helps prevent the spread of cancer in mice without triggering drug resistance or recurrence, shows a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers discover regulatory pathway that blocks immune response against cancer

Researchers show that TIM-3 inhibits the STING signaling pathway in dendritic cells, thereby blocking their ability to elicit an immune response.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New research outlines a critical driver in an immune cell’s defense against melanoma

Researchers have found critical new insights into how cells defend against melanoma. The team describes how an enzyme called nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, or NAMPT, initiates antitumor activity. The researchers suggest that new therapies strengthening this pathway in immune cells could be the foundation for more effective treatments against melanoma.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

PARP inhibitor shrinks tumors in pancreatic cancer patients with mutations

More than two-thirds of pancreatic cancer patients harboring genetic mutations saw their tumor stop growing or shrink substantially after being switched from intensive chemotherapy to the PARP inhibitor rucaparib as a maintenance therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Integrating medical imaging and cancer biology with deep neural networks

Scientists have carried out a study investigating whether deep neural networks can represent associations between gene expression, histology, and CT-derived image features. They found that the network could not only reproduce previously reported associations but also identify new ones.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Microneedle patch delivers antibiotics locally in the skin

MRSA skin infections are often treated with intravenous injection of antibiotics, which can cause significant side effects and promote the development of resistant bacterial strains. To solve these problems, researchers are developing a microneedle patch that delivers antibiotics directly into the affected skin area. New results show that the microneedle patch effectively reduces MRSA bacteria in the skin.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How Legionella makes itself at home

Scientists have discovered a key protein that helps the bacteria that causes Legionnaires’ disease to set up house in the cells of humans and other hosts. The findings could offer insights into how other bacteria are able to survive inside cells, knowledge that could lead to new treatments for a wide variety of infections.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Vegetarians have healthier levels of disease markers than meat-eaters

Vegetarians appear to have a healthier biomarker profile than meat-eaters, and this applies to adults of any age and weight, and is also unaffected by smoking and alcohol consumption, according to a new study in over 166,000 UK adults.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Breaching the blood-brain barrier to deliver precious payloads

RNA-based drugs may change the standard of care for many diseases, making personalized medicine a reality. So far these cost-effective, easy-to-manufacture drugs haven’t been very useful in treating brain tumors and other brain disease. But a team has shown that a combination of ultrasound and RNA-loaded nanoparticles can temporarily open the protective blood-brain barrier, allowing the delivery of potent medicine to brain tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Distinct cell-to-cell communication processes controlled differently

Cells talk to each other to coordinate nutrition, waste removal, energy use, and, in some cases, disease progression. The cells that line the surfaces of organs or specific tissues, called epithelial cells, appear to speak two different languages – one for either side of the cell, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Sugar-sweetened drinks linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer in women under 50, study finds

Colorectal cancer diagnoses have increased among people under age 50 in recent years and researchers are seeking reasons why. A new study has found a link between drinking sugar-sweetened beverages and an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer in women under age 50. The findings suggest that heavy consumption of sugary drinks during adolescence (ages 13 to 18) and adulthood can increase the disease risk.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Das Zellskelett als Ziel für neue Wirkstoffe

Mit einer einzigartigen Kombination aus Computersimulationen und Laborexperimenten haben Forschende des Paul Scherrer Instituts PSI neue Bindungsstellen für Wirkstoffe – etwa gegen Krebs – an einem lebenswichtigen Protein des Zellskeletts entdeckt. Elf dieser Stellen waren zuvor unbekannt. Die Studie ist erschienen in dem Journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Process for eliminating unneeded cells may also protect against cancer

Biologists find cell extrusion, a process that helps organisms eliminated unneeded cells, is triggered when cells can’t replicate their DNA during cell division. In humans, extrusion may serve as a way for the body to eliminate cancerous or precancerous cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Restricting growth, spread of head and neck cancers

Researchers have discovered a key molecule that allows cancer stem cells to bypass the body’s natural immune defenses, spurring the growth and spread of head and neck squamous cell cancers. Their study, conducted in mice, also demonstrates that inhibiting this molecule derails cancer progression and helps eliminate these stem cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

3D ‘bioprinting’ used to create nose cartilage

A team of University of Alberta researchers has discovered a way to use 3-D bioprinting technology to create custom-shaped cartilage for use in surgical procedures. The work aims to make it easier for surgeons to safely restore the features of skin cancer patients living with nasal cartilage defects after surgery.

Quelle: Sciencedaily