Grosser Schritt in Richtung Präzisionsmedizin für Dialysepatienten

Eine häufige Genvariante für das Protein Aquaporin-1 verringert die Anzahl Wasserkanäle in den Zellmembranen. Dies reduziert den Wassertransport und erhöht bei Patienten, die wegen Nierenversagen mit Bauchfelldialyse behandelt werden, das Sterberisiko. Darum sollten bei Betroffenen mit dieser Genvariante spezifische osmotische Lösungen eingesetzt werden, wie ein von der Universität Zürich geleitetes, internationales Forschungsteam zeigt.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Neuer Wirkstoff gegen Parasiten

Forschende am Paul Scherrer Institut PSI haben eine chemische Verbindung identifiziert, die sich vermutlich als Wirkstoff gegen gleich mehrere einzellige Parasiten eignet. Dazu gehören die Erreger der Malaria sowie der Toxoplasmose. Angriffspunkt der vielversprechenden Substanz ist das Protein Tubulin: Es hilft Zellen dabei, sich zu teilen, und ist damit auch für die Vermehrung der Parasiten unentbehrlich. Die Studie erscheint heute im Journal EMBO Molecular Medicine.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Geschlechtsspezifisch höheres Sterberisiko: Ein Protein ist Ursache für schwereren Verlauf von Krebs bei Männern

Auffällig viele lebensbedrohliche Krankheiten verlaufen bei Männern schwerer als bei Frauen. Ein aktuelles Beispiel dafür ist die durch SARS-CoV-2 verursachte COVID-19-Erkrankung. Aber auch bei Krebserkrankungen tragen Männer ein deutlich höheres Risiko für einen schweren Verlauf. Eine molekulare Ursache für diesen Unterschied zwischen den Geschlechtern hat nun ein hat Forschungsteam der Technischen Universität München (TUM) im Rahmen eines von der Wilhelm Sander-Stiftung geförderten Forschungsprojektes entdeckt.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Scientists find a key to hepatitis C entry into cells

Scientists describe the structure of a key protein on the surface of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and how it interacts with its receptor found on some human cells. The findings provide new leads for developing an HCV vaccine.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How resistant germs transport toxins at molecular level

Chemistry: publication in Nature Communications

In order to counter the increasing threat posed by multi-drug resistant germs, we need to understand how their resistance mechanisms work. Transport proteins have an important role to play in this process. In an article published in the journal Nature Communications, a German/UK research team led by Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) has now described the three-dimensional structure of transport protein Pdr5, found also in a similar form in pathogenic fungi. The results could help develop mechanisms to combat dangerous pathogens.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Local supply chains in neurons: who gets the goods?

To store and process information, the brain is constantly producing, distributing and degrading proteins, the essential cellular resources. Proteins are in high demand, especially at synapses (specialized connections between neurons) which, on average, consume over 100000 trillion proteins per day in the brain. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, Max Planck Florida Institute and Goethe University Frankfurt now pictured a tight spatial relationship between the protein production machinery and product in neurons at unprecedented resolution. Their findings imply local sharing of resources: a local ‘neighborhood’ of synapses.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

The proteins of Covid-19: Machine learning assisted structure analysis reveals SARS-CoV-2 virus tactics

The proteins of SARS-CoV-2 play key roles in how the virus manages to evade immune defense and replicate itself in patients’ cells. An international research team – with significant contribution from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) – has now compiled the most detailed view of the virus‘ protein structures available to date. The analysis employing artificial intelligence methods has revealed surprising findings.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Zellfreie Proteinsynthese: Hochaktives Hirudin aus dem Blutegel zellfrei hergestellt

Für eine erfolgreiche Proteinsynthese ist die korrekte aber schwer beherrschbare Faltung der Proteine wichtig, da sie ausschlaggebend für deren Aktivität ist. Am Fraunhofer IZI-BB konnte in Kooperation mit der Universität Greifswald das blutgerinnungshemmende Protein Hirudin aus dem Blutegel kürzlich mit 100-fach höherer Wirksamkeit außerhalb lebender Zellen hergestellt werden.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Photosynthesis even at high temperatures: helper protein ensures the formation of chlorophyll

New study reveals the protective function of the chaperone cpSRP43 against heat shock

Press release embargo: 2. September 2021 at 17:00 (Berlin time), 16:00 (London time), 11:00 (US Eastern Time)

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Bypassing side effects: Nanocontainers transport active ingredients directly to their target

Using nanoparticles, a Jena research team implemented the targeted transport of an active ingredient into liver tissue. The particles were functionalized with a dye that is specifically absorbed by liver cells, and they carried an inhibitor of the signal protein PI3Kinase γ, which contributes to the development of liver failure in sepsis. However, outside liver cells, the signal protein is involved in pathogen reduction; this desired immune activity remained unhindered. This novel approach to the treatment of septic liver failure has recently been published in EMBO Molecular Medicine.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Fighting brain cancer at its root

Researchers identify proteins that drive cancer stem cells. Targeting and suppressing a particular protein called galectin1 could provide a more effective treatment for glioblastoma, in combination with radiation therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Restoring ‚chaperone‘ protein may prevent plaque build-up in Alzheimer’s

Researchers have shown how restoring levels of the protein DAXX and a large group of similar proteins prevents the misfolding of the rogue proteins known to drive Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases, as well as certain mutations that contribute to cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers solve structure of BRCA2 protein complex important in DNA repair

The initials BRCA2 may be best known for a gene associated with many cases of breast cancer, and the protein encoded by the BRCA2 gene is critical to repairing breaks in DNA. The breakdown of this interaction is a hallmark of many cancers. Now scientists have determined the structure of a complex of two proteins — BRCA2 together with MEILB2 — that allows repairs to happen efficiently in cells undergoing cell-splitting, called meiosis. Their results have major implications for cancer and infertility.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

‘Frameshifting’ therapy for mast cell cancers reduces size, spread

A potential new treatment for mast cell cancers reduces the number of mast cells by ‚mutating‘ the messenger RNA (mRNA) before it can deliver instructions for manufacturing the gene responsible for cell proliferation. The method, known as frameshifting, changes the pre-mRNA so that the mature mRNA is degraded and any protein produced from its instructions is altered and inert. In a mouse model, frameshifting directed at the c-KIT gene reduced mast cell tumor size and prevented infiltration into other organs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Light therapy helps burn injuries heal faster by triggering growth protein

The research found that photobiomodulation — a form of low-dose light therapy — sped up recovery from burns and reduced inflammation in mice by activating a protein that controls cell growth and division.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Newly developed, bioinspired cell delivery vehicles

A research team has designed nanocontainers made of sugar and protein components. These containers are taken up by cells through natural processes and can thereby transport substances that normally cannot penetrate the cell membrane — such as drugs or labelled substances for the investigation of cell functions — into cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New findings about cancer cell growth may hold promise for future cancer treatments

For a cell to grow and divide, it needs to produce new proteins. This also applies to cancer cells. Researchers have now investigated the protein eIF4A3 and its role in the growth of cancer cells. The study shows that by blocking or reducing the production of this protein, other processes arise that cause the growth and cell division of cancer cells to cease and eventually die.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New therapeutic target discovered for a number of aggressive cancers

An RNA-modifying protein elevated in some aggressive cancers has been shown to be a promising target for new drug development.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Atomic-level, 3-D structure of MUTYH protein opens small window into DNA repair mechanism

A research team has analyzed the three-dimensional structure of a protein that suppresses the development of colorectal polyposis, MUTYH, at the atomic level and clarified the repair mechanism for DNA mispairings. Since mutations in the MUTYH gene cause heritable colorectal polyposis, which leads to colorectal cancer, the researchers expect that this work will be useful for future research on heritable colorectal polyposis associated with MUTYH.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Eliminating RNA-binding protein improves survival in aggressive leukemia

Removing a protein that is often overexpressed in a rare and aggressive subtype of leukemia can help to slow the cancer’s development and significantly increase the likelihood of survival, according to a new study in mice.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists advance breast, ovarian cancer research with cryo-electron microscopy

Using advanced imaging technology, scientists have provided an unprecedented understanding of the BRCA1-BARD1 protein complex, which is often mutated in patients with breast or ovarian cancer. Their paper identifies aspects of how BRCA1-BARD1 functions, supporting future translational research, cancer prevention efforts and drug development.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Seeking a unique treatment for lobular breast cancer

In an attempt to find out why the long-term outcomes are poorer for patients with lobular breast cancer — which affects some 40,000 women a year — researchers began looking at the role of the protein MDC1 in tumor cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Neuer Therapieansatz für Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen

Wissenschaftler der Universitätsmedizin Mainz entdecken bisher unbekannten Mechanismus zur Regulation der Blutgefäßfunktion: Die Arbeitsgruppe um Univ.-Prof. Dr. Philip Wenzel, Stellvertretender Direktor der Kardiologie I im Zentrum für Kardiologie der Universitätsmedizin Mainz, hat herausgefunden, dass das Protein TBCE (Tubulin-folding cofactor E) einen wesentlichen Faktor für die Funktion der Blutgefäßinnenhaut (Endothel) darstellt. Die wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse bieten einen neuartigen Ansatz für die Behandlung von Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen wie der Koronaren Herzerkrankung. Die Studie der Mainzer Forscher wurde jetzt im „European Heart Journal“ veröffentlicht.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Umgekehrtes optogenetisches Werkzeug entwickelt

Ein neues optogenetisches Werkzeug, also ein Protein, das sich im lebenden Organismus mit Licht steuern lässt, haben Forschende der Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) entwickelt. Sie nutzten ein Opsin – ein Protein, welches in Gehirn und Augen vorkommt – aus Zebrafischen und brachten dieses in das Gehirn von Mäusen ein. Anders als andere optogenetische Werkzeuge wird dieses Opsin durch Licht nicht an-, sondern ausgeschaltet. Die Versuche ergaben auch, dass das Tool geeignet sein könnte, um Veränderungen des Gehirns zu untersuchen, die verantwortlich für die Entwicklung von Epilepsie sind.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New study provides clues to decades-old mystery about cell movement

A new study shows that the stiffness of protein fibers in tissues, like collagen, are a key component in controlling the movement of cells. The groundbreaking discovery provides the first proof of a theory from the early 1980s and could have a major impact on fields that study cell movement from regenerative medicine to cancer research.

Quelle: Sciencedaily