New therapeutic target discovered for a number of aggressive cancers

An RNA-modifying protein elevated in some aggressive cancers has been shown to be a promising target for new drug development.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Atomic-level, 3-D structure of MUTYH protein opens small window into DNA repair mechanism

A research team has analyzed the three-dimensional structure of a protein that suppresses the development of colorectal polyposis, MUTYH, at the atomic level and clarified the repair mechanism for DNA mispairings. Since mutations in the MUTYH gene cause heritable colorectal polyposis, which leads to colorectal cancer, the researchers expect that this work will be useful for future research on heritable colorectal polyposis associated with MUTYH.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Eliminating RNA-binding protein improves survival in aggressive leukemia

Removing a protein that is often overexpressed in a rare and aggressive subtype of leukemia can help to slow the cancer’s development and significantly increase the likelihood of survival, according to a new study in mice.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists advance breast, ovarian cancer research with cryo-electron microscopy

Using advanced imaging technology, scientists have provided an unprecedented understanding of the BRCA1-BARD1 protein complex, which is often mutated in patients with breast or ovarian cancer. Their paper identifies aspects of how BRCA1-BARD1 functions, supporting future translational research, cancer prevention efforts and drug development.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Seeking a unique treatment for lobular breast cancer

In an attempt to find out why the long-term outcomes are poorer for patients with lobular breast cancer — which affects some 40,000 women a year — researchers began looking at the role of the protein MDC1 in tumor cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Neuer Therapieansatz für Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen

Wissenschaftler der Universitätsmedizin Mainz entdecken bisher unbekannten Mechanismus zur Regulation der Blutgefäßfunktion: Die Arbeitsgruppe um Univ.-Prof. Dr. Philip Wenzel, Stellvertretender Direktor der Kardiologie I im Zentrum für Kardiologie der Universitätsmedizin Mainz, hat herausgefunden, dass das Protein TBCE (Tubulin-folding cofactor E) einen wesentlichen Faktor für die Funktion der Blutgefäßinnenhaut (Endothel) darstellt. Die wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse bieten einen neuartigen Ansatz für die Behandlung von Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen wie der Koronaren Herzerkrankung. Die Studie der Mainzer Forscher wurde jetzt im „European Heart Journal“ veröffentlicht.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Umgekehrtes optogenetisches Werkzeug entwickelt

Ein neues optogenetisches Werkzeug, also ein Protein, das sich im lebenden Organismus mit Licht steuern lässt, haben Forschende der Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) entwickelt. Sie nutzten ein Opsin – ein Protein, welches in Gehirn und Augen vorkommt – aus Zebrafischen und brachten dieses in das Gehirn von Mäusen ein. Anders als andere optogenetische Werkzeuge wird dieses Opsin durch Licht nicht an-, sondern ausgeschaltet. Die Versuche ergaben auch, dass das Tool geeignet sein könnte, um Veränderungen des Gehirns zu untersuchen, die verantwortlich für die Entwicklung von Epilepsie sind.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New study provides clues to decades-old mystery about cell movement

A new study shows that the stiffness of protein fibers in tissues, like collagen, are a key component in controlling the movement of cells. The groundbreaking discovery provides the first proof of a theory from the early 1980s and could have a major impact on fields that study cell movement from regenerative medicine to cancer research.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Chromosomes separation under focus

During cell division, chromosomes are duplicated and separated so that one copy of each chromosome is inherited by each of the two emerging daughter cells. Correct distribution of chromosomes requires high accuracy and defects in this process can cause aberrant distribution of chromosomes and facilitate cancer development. By analyzing the structure of the protein responsible for chromosome separation, a team has shed light on the mechanisms controlling this essential player in cell division.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Neuer Angriffspunkt für aggressiven Darmkrebs entdeckt

Darmkrebs ist deutschlandweit die zweithäufigste Tumorerkrankung bei Frauen und die dritthäufigste bei Männern. Nicht selten bilden Tumoren des Darms gefährliche Metastasen in anderen Organen aus. Ein Team unter Leitung von Wissenschaftlern am Nationalen Centrum für Tumorerkrankungen (NCT) in Dresden und Heidelberg und vom Deutschen Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) hat nun einen neuen molekularen Angriffspunkt gegen besonders aggressive Formen von Darmkrebs entdeckt: Durch das Ausschalten eines bestimmten Protein-Komplexes ließen sich Krebszellen in Tumormodellen gezielt bekämpfen.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

How do our cells react to starvation or stress?

Cells respond to starvation or stress by changing the composition of proteins on the cell surface. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne have now discovered that a protein complex called mTORC1 is a central coordinator of this process. These findings could be important in the future for the development of therapies for diseases in which the activity of this protein complex is known to be dysregulated, such as cancer, neurological or metabolic disorders or old age.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New cancer findings can give wider access to immunotherapy

Researchers have shown how pharmacological activation of the protein p53 boosts the immune response against tumors. The results can be of significance to the development of new combination therapies that will give more cancer patients access to immunotherapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Unknown role – ATR protein regulates neuronal activity

The ATR protein plays an important role in the response to replication stress as a regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR) and controls cell viability. Mutations of ATR in humans lead to, among other pathologies, neurological defects; indicating a yet unknown role for ATR in non-dividing cells. Researchers from the Leibniz Institute on Aging (FLI) in Jena and the Section of Neuroimmunology of Jena University Hospital have shown that ATR deletion in neurons does not affect brain development and formation, but amplifies neuronal activity and increases susceptibility to epilepsy. This study identifies a physiological function of ATR, beyond its DDR role, in regulating neuronal activity.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Unbekannte Rolle – ATR-Protein reguliert neuronale Aktivität

Das ATR-Protein spielt als Regulator der DNA-Schadensreaktion (DDR) eine wichtige Rolle bei der Reaktion auf Replikationsstress und kontrolliert die Zellgesundheit. Mutationen von ATR führen beim Menschen zu neurologischen Symptomen, ein Hinweis auf eine noch unbekannte Rolle in postmitotischen Zellen. Forscher des Leibniz-Instituts für Alternsforschung (FLI) und Universitätsklinikums Jena zeigten, dass der ATR-Verlust in Neuronen die Entwicklung und Bildung des Gehirns nicht beeinträchtigt, aber die neuronale Aktivität verstärkt und Epilepsie-Anfälligkeit erhöht. Eine neue physiologische Funktion von ATR bei der Regulierung der neuronalen Aktivität, die über seine Rolle bei DDR hinausgeht.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Multitalented filaments in living cells

Living cells are constantly exposed to a wide variety of mechanical stresses: heart and lungs must withstand expansion and contraction; our skin must be resistant to tearing whilst retaining elasticity; immune cells are squashy so they can move through the body. ‘Intermediate filaments’ (special protein structures), play an important role here. Researchers have now measured what determines the properties of individual filaments, and which features only occur through the interaction of filaments in networks.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Virus that causes COVID-19 can find alternate route to infect cells

The virus that causes COVID-19 normally gets inside cells by attaching to a protein called ACE2. Researchers have found that a single mutation confers the ability to enter cells through another route, which may threaten the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics designed to block the standard route of entry.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How pancreatic cancer cells dodge drug treatments

Pancreatic cancer cells typically rely on a mutant version of the KRAS protein to proliferate. These cancer cells can also survive losing KRAS by activating alternative growth pathways. Scientists discovered a new interaction between mutant KRAS and a protein complex called RSK1/NF1 that may be the source of this adaptive resistance.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel molecular mechanism contributing to the pathogenesis of IPF: human microRNA-506-Quaking axis as a master switch

A team of scientists of the Fraunhofer ITEM, the Hannover Medical School and FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg has discovered a novel molecular regulatory axis that plays a decisive role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The focus is on the RNA-binding protein Quaking and its functional interplay with microRNAs. In-silico as well as in-vitro experiments in human lung fibroblasts revealed a novel regulatory microRNA-506-Quaking axis that contributes to IPF pathogenesis. The study has been published in Nature’s Scientific Reports. These findings open up new options for IPF therapies, for example based on RNA therapeutics or small molecules.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Corona-Impfstoff: Novavax hat laut Studie hohe Wirksamkeit

Der Protein-Impfstoff von Novavax hat sich laut Hersteller in Studien bewährt, im dritten Quartal soll die Zulassung beantragt werden. Das Unternehmen will pro Monat mindestens 100 Millionen Dosen produzieren.

Quelle: SPIEGEL ONLINE

Study confirms safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in people with cancer

In a review of 200 patients with a wide spectrum of cancer diagnoses, researchers found that after full vaccination, 94 percent of patients overall demonstrated seroconversion, which was determined by the presence of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Response rates were very high among patients with solid tumors and were lower in people with certain blood cancers, but even the majority of those patients mounted an immune response.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Protein disguise could be new target for cancer immunotherapy

Researchers have identified a protein that helps tumors evade the immune system and, in certain types of cancers, is linked to a poorer chance of survival. The protein could become a target for future cancer treatments.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers discover gene linked to bone cancer in children, ID potential novel therapy

Researchers have discovered a gene, OTUD7A, that impacts the development of Ewing sarcoma, a bone cancer that occurs mainly in children. They have also identified a compound that shows potential to block OTUD7A protein activity. Critical relationships between proteins contribute to the development of cancers such as Ewing sarcoma. So, it was a seminal discovery when the researchers found that OTUD7A controls the cancer-causing fusion protein.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Mitigating emissions in the livestock production sector

The farming of livestock to feed the global appetite for animal products greatly contributes to global warming. A new study however shows that emission intensity per unit of animal protein produced from the sector has decreased globally over the past two decades due to greater production efficiency, raising questions around the extent to which methane emissions will change in the future and how we can better manage their negative impacts.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Scientists reveal role of genetic switch in pigmentation and melanoma

A study reveals new insights about a protein called CRTC3, a genetic switch that could potentially be targeted to develop new treatments for melanoma by keeping the switch turned off.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Übersehenes Protein wirkt im Hintergrund embryonaler Stammzellen

Verloren im Buchstabensalat: Ein bislang übersehenes Protein ist daran beteiligt, Gene zu hemmen, die zur Reifung von embryonalen Stammzellen beitragen. Das hat ein internationales Forschungsteam unter der Leitung Marburger Lebenswissenschaftler herausgefunden, nachdem es das Protein SAMD1 in Datenbanken aufspürte. Die Wissenschaftler und Wissenschaftlerinnen berichten in der Wissenschaftszeitschrift „Science Advances“ über ihre Ergebnisse.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft