Hydrogen peroxide-producing drug boosts cancer-killing effect of radiotherapy

A small drug molecule that appears to protect normal tissue from the damaging effects of radiation, may simultaneously be able to boost the cancer-killing effect of radiation therapy, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Genetic effects of Chernobyl radiation

Researchers utilized genomic tools to investigate potential health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, a known carcinogen, as a result of the 1986 Chernobyl accident. One study found no evidence that genetic changes associated with radiation exposure are passed to children, while the second study documented the genetic changes in the tumors of people who developed thyroid cancer after being exposed as children or fetuses to the radiation released by the accident. Findings are being published close to the 35th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Common drug could be used to prevent certain skin cancers

New data suggests that an oral drug currently used in the clinical setting to treat neuromuscular diseases could also help prevent a common form of skin cancer caused by damage from ultraviolet-B radiation from the sun.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Nothing for the garbage can – Hof scientists want to research environmentally friendly plastic products from biowaste

Will there soon be packaging in the supermarket made with biowaste from local cideries or agricultural film with coffee grounds? At the Institute for Biopolymers and Sustainability at Hof University (ibp) a junior research group wants to explore the influence of natural radiation and biogenic residues on the properties and structure of biopolymers. This could make these bioplastics interesting for a sustainable product economy in the future. Among other things, biowaste from the food industry and forestry is to be used in bioplastic blends and thus fed into a natural reuse.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Radioactive bone cement may be safer in treating spinal tumors

A radioactive bone cement that’s injected into bone to provide support and local irradiation is proving to be a safer alternative to conventional radiation therapy for bone tumors, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Tumor-suppressor protein dynamics determine if tissues survive radiation

Exposure to radiation can wreak indiscriminate havoc on cells, tissues, and organs. Curiously, however, some tissues are more vulnerable to radiation damage than others. A new study now finds that cellular survival after radiation exposure depends on behavior of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 over time. In vulnerable tissues, p53 levels go up and remain high, leading to cell death. In tissues that tend to survive radiation damage, p53 levels oscillate up and down.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Opposites attract: scientists discover how mother-of-pearl self-assembles into a perfect structure

The strength and beauty of mother-of-pearl, also known as nacre, comes from its remarkably regular and uniform architecture. Until now, it was unclear how this intricate structure could be built by a multitude of single cells, all secreting materials at different locations at the same time. In a new study published in Nature Physics, researchers from the B CUBE – Center for Molecular Bioengineering at TU Dresden and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble describe, for the first time, that structural defects in self-assembling nacre attract and cancel each other out, eventually leading to a perfect periodic structure.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Wissenschaftler der TU Dresden entdecken, wie sich das Perlmutt selbst zu einer perfekten Struktur zusammensetzt

Seine Stärke und Schönheit verdankt Permutt seiner bemerkenswert regelmäßigen und einheitlichen Architektur. Bislang war unklar, wie diese komplizierte Struktur durch eine Vielzahl von Einzelzellen, die alle gleichzeitig an verschiedenen Orten Material absondern, aufgebaut werden konnte. In der jetzt in Nature Physics veröffentlichten Studie beschreiben Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler des B CUBE-Center for Molecular Bioengineering an der TU Dresden und der European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) zum ersten Mal, dass sich strukturelle Defekte im selbstorganisierenden Perlmutt gegenseitig anziehen und aufheben sowie schließlich zu einer perfekten periodischen Struktur führen.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Explodierender Wasserstrahl im Röntgenlicht

Röntgenlaser eröffnet Blick auf ultraschnelle Prozesse in Physik, Biologie und Materialwissenschaften

Mit ultrakurzen Röntgenblitzen hat ein interdisziplinäres Forscherteam extrem schnell explodierende Wasserstrahlen abgelichtet. Ziel der Versuche am Europäischen Röntgenlaser European XFEL war, sehr kleinräumige und sehr kurze Prozesse per Röntgenholographie zu untersuchen. „Als Beispiel für so einen Prozess haben wir einen feinen Wasserstrahl gewählt, der von einem Infrarot-Laser an einer Stelle zum Explodieren gebracht wird“, sagt DESY-Forscher Johannes Hagemann, Hauptautor der Studie, die in der Januar-Ausgabe des Fachblatts „Journal of Synchrotron Radiation“ erschienen ist.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Surgery may offer survival advantage in certain metastatic breast cancers

Surgery, in addition to treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy, may increase the length of survival for metastatic breast cancer patients, according to researchers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Errant DNA boosts immunotherapy effectiveness

DNA that ends up where it doesn’t belong in cancer cells can unleash an immune response that makes tumors more susceptible to immunotherapy, the results of two new studies indicate. The findings suggest that delivering radiation – which triggers DNA release from cells – before immunotherapy could be an effective way to fight cancers that are challenging to treat.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Space travel can adversely impact energy production in a cell

Studies of both mice and humans who have traveled into space reveal that critical parts of a cell’s energy production machinery, the mitochondria, can be made dysfunctional due to changes in gravity, radiation exposure and other factors. These findings are part of an extensive research effort across many scientific disciplines to look at the health effects of travel into space.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Natural UV radiation in winter not strong enough against SARS-CoV-2

The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 poses a threat to human health both indoors and outdoors. Besides direct infection from respiratory droplets and aerosols, another mode of transmission involves airborne viruses that linger in the air before settling on and contaminating surfaces. A recently published study by Vetmeduni Vienna has now revealed the extent to which solar UV radiation is effective against SARS-CoV-2 outdoors.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Is proton therapy the silver bullet for children with brain cancer?

How safe is proton therapy for children with brain cancer compared to the conventional x-ray radiation delivered post-surgery?

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Experimental glioblastoma therapy shows curative powers in mice models

Researchers used a second-generation pro-drug called MP-Pt(IV) to target the deadly cells of glioblastoma tumors and found mice harboring human glioblastoma tumors in their brains had greatly enhanced survival and weight gain when given the newly developed prodrug. This mitochondrial-targeted prodrug also greatly improves outcomes when coupled with standard therapies of radiation and/or chemotherapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Schizophrenia drug combined with radiation shows promise in treating deadly brain tumors

Researchers found adding a drug once commonly used to treat schizophrenia to traditional radiation therapy helped improve overall survival in mice with glioblastoma.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Tumors hijack the cell death pathway to live

Cancer cells avoid an immune system attack after radiation by commandeering a cell signaling pathway that helps dying cells avoid triggering an immune response, a new study suggests.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Shorter radiotherapy treatment for bowel cancer patients during COVID-19

An international panel of cancer experts has recommended a one-week course of radiotherapy and delaying surgery as the best way to treat patients with bowel cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic. The short course of treatment involves higher-intensity radiation rather than five weeks of radiotherapy coupled with chemotherapy. Surgery, which normally happens one to two weeks after radiotherapy, can be safely delayed by up to 12 weeks, say the expert panel.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A molecular atlas of skin cells

Our skin protects us from physical injury, radiation and microbes, and at the same time produces hair and facilitates perspiration. Details of how skin cells manage such disparate tasks have so far remained elusive. Now, researchers have systematically mapped skin cells and their genetic programs, creating a detailed molecular atlas of the skin in its complexity.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New tech takes radiation out of cancer screening

Researchers have developed a new, inexpensive technology that could save lives and money by routinely screening women for breast cancer without exposure to radiation. The system uses harmless microwaves and artificial intelligence (AI) software to detect even small, early-stage tumors within minutes.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Sneaking up on tiny crystals with electron diffraction

Understanding the structure of proteins, the building blocks of life, is essential to obtain insight into their biological function. Due to their minute size and extreme fragility, these structures are enormously difficult to determine. Acquiring data of sufficient resolution requires immense doses of high energy X-ray radiation, which unfortunately irrevocably damage the proteins principally being investigated.

Now researchers from the MPSD and DESY in Hamburg have developed an inventive new method which avoids these pitfalls and uses accessible, cost-effective technology. Their work describing the new method has been published in Nature Communications.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Much shorter radiation treatment found to be safe, effective for people with soft tissue sarcoma

A new study found that treating soft tissue sarcoma with radiation over a significantly shorter period of time is safe, and likely just as effective, as a much longer conventional course of treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Thyroid cancer, genetic variations, cell phones linked in new study

New research finds that radiation from cell phones is associated with higher rates of thyroid cancer among people with genetic variations in specific genes.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New therapy option identified for early-stage breast cancer

Radionuclide therapy has been successful in delaying the growth of disseminated tumor cells in early-stage breast cancer. Radium-233 dichloride not only impacts cells directly hit by radiation but also has significant effects on cells outside of the radiation field, according to new research.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Biological clock is key to reducing heart damage from radiation therapy

A new study suggests that the biological clock is involved in heart toxicity from radiation therapy and could be harnessed as part of a preventive strategy. Findings show that after receiving radiation to the heart, mice with disrupted biological clocks had significantly worse heart function than controls. They also demonstrated that Bmal1 — a protein that drives 24-hour rhythms in the expression of many genes — plays an important role in protecting the heart from radiation-related damage.

Quelle: Sciencedaily