‘Gut bugs’ can drive prostate cancer growth and treatment resistance

Common gut bacteria can become ‚hormone factories‘ – fuelling prostate cancer and making it resistant to treatment, a new study shows. Scientists revealed how gut bacteria contribute to the progression of advanced prostate cancers and their resistance to hormone therapy — by providing an alternative source of growth-promoting androgens, or male hormones. The findings, once further validated in the clinic, could provide new opportunities for the treatment of prostate cancer through manipulation of the microbiome.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

An estrogen receptor that promotes cancer also causes drug resistance

Cancer cells proliferate despite a myriad of stresses — from oxygen deprivation to chemotherapy — that would kill any ordinary cell. Now, researchers have gained insight into how they may be doing this through the downstream activity of a powerful estrogen receptor. The discovery offers clues to overcoming resistance to therapies like tamoxifen that are used in many types of breast cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel assay finds new mechanism underlying red blood cell aging

A multifaceted microfluidic in vitro assay is helping to identify the role of hypoxia on red blood cell aging via the biomechanical pathways. It holds promise for investigating hypoxic effects on the metastatic potential and relevant drug resistance of cancer cells. It also can be a useful tool to predict the mechanical performance of natural and artificial red blood cells for transfusion purposes and to further extend to red blood cells in other blood diseases and other cell types.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How resistant germs transport toxins at molecular level

Chemistry: publication in Nature Communications

In order to counter the increasing threat posed by multi-drug resistant germs, we need to understand how their resistance mechanisms work. Transport proteins have an important role to play in this process. In an article published in the journal Nature Communications, a German/UK research team led by Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) has now described the three-dimensional structure of transport protein Pdr5, found also in a similar form in pathogenic fungi. The results could help develop mechanisms to combat dangerous pathogens.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Two branches of plant immune response closely linked

Study by University of Tübingen and Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research overhauls conventional view of plant immune response – pathogen resistance an important goal in crop development

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Existing drug may help improve responses to cellular therapies in advanced leukemias

A new study shows how to overcome resistance to CAR T cell therapy with an experimental small molecule inhibitor.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers pinpoint how PARP inhibitors combat BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor cells

PARP inhibitors, used to treat patients with cancer of the breast, ovaries, prostate and pancreas, work by inducing persistent DNA gaps in tumor cells with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The discovery offers the potential to monitor tumors for the development of resistance to PARP inhibitor therapy, and to identify drug combinations that could prevent drug resistance and improve the efficacy of cancer therapies.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Highly potent, stable nanobodies stop SARS-CoV-2

Göttingen researchers have developed mini-antibodies that efficiently block the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its dangerous new variants. These so-called nanobodies bind and neutralize the virus up to 1000 times better than previously developed mini-antibodies. In addition, the scientists optimized their mini-antibodies for stability and resistance to extreme heat. This unique combination makes them promising agents to treat COVID-19. Since nanobodies can be produced at low costs in large quantities, they could meet the global demand for COVID-19 therapeutics. The new nanobodies are currently in preparation for clinical trials.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Random effects make it difficult to optimise antibiotic therapy

Research team from the Kiel Evolution Center investigates the role of a reduction in bacterial population size and resulting random effects in the evolution of antibiotic resistance

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Cancer: Information theory to fight resistance to treatments

A major challenge in cancer therapy is the adaptive response of cancer cells to targeted therapies. Although this adaptive response is theoretically reversible, such a reversal is hampered by numerous molecular mechanisms that allow the cancer cells to adapt to the treatment. A team has used information theory, in order to objectify in vivo the molecular regulations at play in the mechanisms of the adaptive response and their modulation by a therapeutic combination.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

How pancreatic cancer cells dodge drug treatments

Pancreatic cancer cells typically rely on a mutant version of the KRAS protein to proliferate. These cancer cells can also survive losing KRAS by activating alternative growth pathways. Scientists discovered a new interaction between mutant KRAS and a protein complex called RSK1/NF1 that may be the source of this adaptive resistance.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New study on South American grass frogs: Battle between molecular forces leads to toxin resistance

A gene duplication leads to frogs of the genus Leptodactylus being resistant to certain poisons. This was discovered by an international research team with the participation of the Department of Biology at Universität Hamburg. The results show that the study of gene duplicates can help identify important genetic interactions.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Low-dose, four-drug combo blocks cancer spread in mice

Low doses of a four-drug combination helps prevent the spread of cancer in mice without triggering drug resistance or recurrence, shows a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New CAR T approach minimizes resistance, helps avoid relapse in non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma

Early results from a new, pioneering chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy trial found using a bilateral attack achieves a more robust defense and helps avoid relapse.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Blocking a protein could help overcome cancer resistance to PARP inhibitors

Researchers have found that blocking a specific protein could increase tumor sensitivity to treatment with PARP inhibitors. Their work suggests combining treatments could lead to improved therapy for patients with inheritable breast cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Lung cancer resistance: the key is glucose

Lung tumors are home to immune cells that affect their growth and resistance to treatment. Looking at neutrophils, scientists led by EPFL have discovered that the key might lie in the cells‘ ability to metabolize glucose, opening an entirely new target for improving radiotherapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A new model can predict the evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria

An international research team has developed a model that predicts growth rates and resistance mechanisms of common bacterial mutants at different drug doses / Publication in ‘Nature Ecology & Evolution’

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Feeding waste milk to calves can increase antimicrobial resistance

The use of antimicrobial drugs and the subsequent selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global health problem affecting humans, animals and the environment. A research team from Vetmeduni Vienna has examined a possible factor influencing this problem in more detail, namely the feeding of waste milk – milk that does not meet the legal requirements for human consumption – to calves. The researchers argue that more attention should be paid to the possible negative consequences of this feeding practice and that alternative strategies must be explored.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New humanized mouse model provides insight into immunotherapy resistance

Scientists have created an advanced humanized immune system mouse model that allows them to examine resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapies in melanoma. It has revealed a central role for mast cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New class of antibiotics active against a wide range of bacteria

Scientists have discovered a new class of compounds that uniquely combine direct antibiotic killing of pan drug-resistant bacterial pathogens with a simultaneous rapid immune response for combating antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Small molecules control bacterial resistance to antibiotics

Antibiotics have revolutionized medicine by providing effective treatments for infectious diseases such as cholera. But the pathogens that cause disease are increasingly developing resistance to the antibiotics that are most commonly used. Scientists at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany have discovered a molecule that influences the antibiotic-resistance of cholera bacteria. They have published their results in the scientific journal “Nature Communications”.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Age is a primary determinant of melanoma treatment resistance

Age may cause identical cancer cells with the same mutations to behave differently. In animal and laboratory models of melanoma cells, age was a primary factor in treatment response.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Calcium bursts kill drug-resistant tumor cells

Multidrug resistance (MDR) — a process in which tumors become resistant to multiple medicines — is the main cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. Tumor cells often acquire MDR by boosting their production of proteins that pump drugs out of the cell, rendering the chemotherapies ineffective. Now, researchers have developed nanoparticles that release bursts of calcium inside tumor cells, inhibiting drug pumps and reversing MDR.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New way to halt leukemia relapse shown promising in mice

Drugs tackling chronic myelogenous leukemia have completely transformed prognoses of patients over the last couple of decades, with most cases going into remission. But drug resistance can occur, leading to relapses. Targeting the lipids involved in regulating part of a leukemia stem cell’s life span offers a potential second route to defeat the disease — and solid tumorous cancers as well.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Allergic immune responses help fight bacterial infections

Researchers from CeMM Research Center of Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Medical University of Vienna and Stanford University School of Medicine, have found that a module of the immune system, which is best known for causing allergic reactions, plays a key role in acquiring host defense against infections triggered by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. This “allergy module”, constituted by mast cells and Immunoglobulin E, can grant protection and increased resistance against secondary bacterial infections in the body. These findings indicate a beneficial function for allergic immune responses and are now published in the renowned journal Immunity.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft