New CAR T approach minimizes resistance, helps avoid relapse in non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma

Early results from a new, pioneering chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy trial found using a bilateral attack achieves a more robust defense and helps avoid relapse.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Blocking a protein could help overcome cancer resistance to PARP inhibitors

Researchers have found that blocking a specific protein could increase tumor sensitivity to treatment with PARP inhibitors. Their work suggests combining treatments could lead to improved therapy for patients with inheritable breast cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Lung cancer resistance: the key is glucose

Lung tumors are home to immune cells that affect their growth and resistance to treatment. Looking at neutrophils, scientists led by EPFL have discovered that the key might lie in the cells’ ability to metabolize glucose, opening an entirely new target for improving radiotherapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A new model can predict the evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria

An international research team has developed a model that predicts growth rates and resistance mechanisms of common bacterial mutants at different drug doses / Publication in ‘Nature Ecology & Evolution’

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Feeding waste milk to calves can increase antimicrobial resistance

The use of antimicrobial drugs and the subsequent selection for antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global health problem affecting humans, animals and the environment. A research team from Vetmeduni Vienna has examined a possible factor influencing this problem in more detail, namely the feeding of waste milk – milk that does not meet the legal requirements for human consumption – to calves. The researchers argue that more attention should be paid to the possible negative consequences of this feeding practice and that alternative strategies must be explored.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New humanized mouse model provides insight into immunotherapy resistance

Scientists have created an advanced humanized immune system mouse model that allows them to examine resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapies in melanoma. It has revealed a central role for mast cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New class of antibiotics active against a wide range of bacteria

Scientists have discovered a new class of compounds that uniquely combine direct antibiotic killing of pan drug-resistant bacterial pathogens with a simultaneous rapid immune response for combating antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Small molecules control bacterial resistance to antibiotics

Antibiotics have revolutionized medicine by providing effective treatments for infectious diseases such as cholera. But the pathogens that cause disease are increasingly developing resistance to the antibiotics that are most commonly used. Scientists at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany have discovered a molecule that influences the antibiotic-resistance of cholera bacteria. They have published their results in the scientific journal “Nature Communications”.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Age is a primary determinant of melanoma treatment resistance

Age may cause identical cancer cells with the same mutations to behave differently. In animal and laboratory models of melanoma cells, age was a primary factor in treatment response.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Calcium bursts kill drug-resistant tumor cells

Multidrug resistance (MDR) — a process in which tumors become resistant to multiple medicines — is the main cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. Tumor cells often acquire MDR by boosting their production of proteins that pump drugs out of the cell, rendering the chemotherapies ineffective. Now, researchers have developed nanoparticles that release bursts of calcium inside tumor cells, inhibiting drug pumps and reversing MDR.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New way to halt leukemia relapse shown promising in mice

Drugs tackling chronic myelogenous leukemia have completely transformed prognoses of patients over the last couple of decades, with most cases going into remission. But drug resistance can occur, leading to relapses. Targeting the lipids involved in regulating part of a leukemia stem cell’s life span offers a potential second route to defeat the disease — and solid tumorous cancers as well.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Allergic immune responses help fight bacterial infections

Researchers from CeMM Research Center of Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the Medical University of Vienna and Stanford University School of Medicine, have found that a module of the immune system, which is best known for causing allergic reactions, plays a key role in acquiring host defense against infections triggered by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. This “allergy module”, constituted by mast cells and Immunoglobulin E, can grant protection and increased resistance against secondary bacterial infections in the body. These findings indicate a beneficial function for allergic immune responses and are now published in the renowned journal Immunity.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Researchers pinpoint hierarchy of breast cancer cells as potential cause for treatment resistance

Researchers say it can take cells in different forms or ‘life stages’ to cause cancer to grow and spread.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Leap forward in the fight against antibiotic resistance

Leap forward in the fight against antibiotic resistance

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New findings on the evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance

Research team from Kiel University investigates how the application of antibiotics affects the mechanisms of plasmid-mediated inheritance of resistance genes

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Antiviral method against herpes paves the way for combating incurable viral infections

Researchers have discovered a new method to treat human herpes viruses. The new broad-spectrum method targets physical properties in the genome of the virus rather than viral proteins, which have previously been targeted. The treatment consists of new molecules that penetrate the protein shell of the virus and prevent genes from leaving the virus to infect the cell. It does not lead to resistance and acts independently of mutations in the genome of the virus.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Nanoparticle for overcoming leukemia treatment resistance

One of the largest problems with cancer treatment is the development of resistance to anticancer therapies. A research team found that repurposing a commonly used chemotherapy drug using a nanoparticle was more effective than both a solution of the pure drug and other available treatments.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cellular stress causes cancer cell chemoresistance

Resistance of cancer cells against therapeutic agents is a major cause of treatment failure, especially in recurrent diseases. An international team has now identified a novel mechanism of chemoresistance.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers repurpose classic chemotherapy drug to overcome cancer therapy resistance

Drug resistance is a major obstacle in cancer treatment — leading to relapse for many patients. In a new study, researchers report on a promising new strategy to overcome drug resistance in leukemia, using targeted doses of the widely-used chemotherapy drug doxorubicin.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

European Society for Evolutionary Biology awards its main prize to former young researcher from Kiel

Dr Camilo Barbosa receives the renowned John Maynard Smith Prize for his work on the prevention of antibiotic resistance

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Engineers model mutations causing drug resistance

Whether it is a drug-resistant strain of bacteria, or cancer cells that no longer react to the drugs intended to kill them, diverse mutations make cells resistant to chemicals, and ‘second generation’ approaches are needed. Now, a team of engineers may have a way to predict which mutations will occur in people, creating an easier path to create effective pharmaceuticals.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Copy/paste and delete – or how to thrive without gene regulation

Turning genes on and off as needed allows an organism to adapt to changes in the environment—provided the organism has a specific regulatory design in place. Scientists from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have shown that under rare or rapidly changing conditions, the fitness of a population of bacteria can increase simply by producing a higher number of copies of one and the same gene. The results are highly relevant in resistance to antibiotics treatment. The study was published in Nature Ecology & Evolution.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Researchers discover vaccine to strengthen the immune system of plants

Like animals and humans, plants possess a kind of immune system. It can e.g. recognize pathogenic fungi by the chitin in their cell walls, triggering disease resistance. Some fungi hide from the immune system by modifying some of the chitin building blocks, converting chitin into chitosan. Researchers of the University of Münster now found that plants can react to a certain pattern in this chitosan, stimulating their immune system. They are already developing a chitosan-based plant immune-stimulant in order to reduce the use of chemical pesticides in agriculture.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Dresden researchers discover resistance mechanism in aggressive cancer

Protease blocks guardian function against uncontrolled cell division

Researchers of the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital Dresden at the National Center for Tumor Diseases Dresden (NCT/UCC), together with an international team of researchers, have deciphered a previously unknown survival mechanism in the nucleus of particularly aggressive tumor cells. Accumultion of the protein-cleaving enzyme (protease) caspase 8, in the nucleus of particularly aggressive cancer cells, plays an important role here. If the enzyme could be chemically inhibited at this point, it might be possible to effectively combat various types of cancer, even in advanced progression stages.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Cheap drug may alleviate treatment-resistance in leukemia

A common and inexpensive drug may be used to counteract treatment resistance in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), one of the most common forms of blood cancer. The researchers will now launch a clinical study to test the new combination treatment in patients.

Quelle: Sciencedaily