Colorectal cancer diagnoses have increased among people under age 50 in recent years and researchers are seeking reasons why. A new study has found a link between drinking sugar-sweetened beverages and an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer in women under age 50. The findings suggest that heavy consumption of sugary drinks during adolescence (ages 13 to 18) and adulthood can increase the disease risk.
Biologists find cell extrusion, a process that helps organisms eliminated unneeded cells, is triggered when cells can’t replicate their DNA during cell division. In humans, extrusion may serve as a way for the body to eliminate cancerous or precancerous cells.
Researchers have discovered a key molecule that allows cancer stem cells to bypass the body’s natural immune defenses, spurring the growth and spread of head and neck squamous cell cancers. Their study, conducted in mice, also demonstrates that inhibiting this molecule derails cancer progression and helps eliminate these stem cells.
A team of University of Alberta researchers has discovered a way to use 3-D bioprinting technology to create custom-shaped cartilage for use in surgical procedures. The work aims to make it easier for surgeons to safely restore the features of skin cancer patients living with nasal cartilage defects after surgery.
Researchers have developed a new technology to overcome the inefficiencies and high error rates common among next-generation sequencing techniques that have previously limited their clinical application.
Cancerous tumors thrive on blood, extending their roots deep into the fabric of the tissue of their host. They alter the genetics of surrounding cells and evolve to avoid the protective attacks of immune cells. Now, researchers have developed a way to study the relationship between solid, difficult-to-treat tumors and the microenvironment they create to support their growth.
In material physics understanding how systems interact across the interfaces separating them is of central interest. But can physical models clarify similar concepts in living systems, such as cells? Physicists used the framework of disordered elastic systems to study the process of wound healing – the proliferation of cell fronts which eventually join to close a lesion. Their study identified the scales of the dominant interactions between cells which determine this process.
Volunteer firefighters — who comprise more than 65 percent of the U.S. fire service — have higher levels of ‘forever chemicals,’ per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), in their bodies than the general public, according to a new study. It is the first study to evaluate volunteer firefighters’ exposure to PFAS.
This study builds on decades of work showing that the protein IL-24 attacks cancer broadly, and is the first to deliver the protein using T cells. This approach is in contrast to CAR-T cells, which are built to recognize proteins on the surface of cancer cells and haven’t been successful against solid tumors. Mice with prostate cancer experienced shrinkage of the original tumor as well as distant metastases following treatment with IL-24 T cells.
Researchers have developed CRISPR-sciATAC, a novel integrative genetic screening platform that jointly captures CRISPR gene perturbations and single-cell chromatin accessibility genome-wide. The new method harnesses the programmability of the gene editing system CRISPR to knock-out nearly all chromatin-related genes in parallel, offering researchers deeper insights into the role of DNA accessibility in cancer and in rare diseases involving chromatin.
For the first time, scientists are able to study changes in the DNA of any human tissue, following the resolution of long-standing technical challenges. The new method, called nanorate sequencing (NanoSeq), makes it possible to study how genetic changes occur in human tissues with unprecedented accuracy.
Despite the prevalence of Alzheimer’s, there are still no treatments, in part because it has been challenging to study how the disease develops. Now, scientists have uncovered new insights into what goes awry during Alzheimer’s by growing neurons that resemble — more accurately than ever before — brain cells in older patients. And like patients themselves, the afflicted neurons appear to lose their cellular identity.
Using data from the 2010-2018 National Health Interview Surveys, researchers found that just 16% of men who were 18 to 21 years old had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine at any age. In comparison, 42% of women in the same age bracket had gotten at least one shot of the vaccine.
Oxygen radicals in the body are generally considered dangerous because they can trigger something called oxidative stress, which is associated with the development of many chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. In studies on mice, scientists have now discovered how oxygen radicals, conversely, can also reduce the risk of cancer and mitigate damage to the hereditary molecule DNA.
A recent study shows that loneliness among middle-aged men is associated with an increased risk of cancer.
How do the billions of cells communicate in order to perform tasks? The cells exert force on their environment through movement – and in doing so, they communicate. They work as a group in order to infiltrate their environment, perform wound healing and the like. They sense the stiffness or softness of their surroundings and this helps them connect and organize their collective effort. But when the connection between cells is distrubeddisturbed, a situation just like when cancer is initiated, can appear.
Researchers utilized genomic tools to investigate potential health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, a known carcinogen, as a result of the 1986 Chernobyl accident. One study found no evidence that genetic changes associated with radiation exposure are passed to children, while the second study documented the genetic changes in the tumors of people who developed thyroid cancer after being exposed as children or fetuses to the radiation released by the accident. Findings are being published close to the 35th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster.
Artificial intelligence model predicts which key of the immune system opens the locks of coronavirus
A new artificial intelligence (AI) method is helping researchers link immune cells to their targets and, for example, uncouple which white blood cells recognize SARS-CoV-2. The tool has broad applications in understanding the function of the immune system in infections, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.
When given a choice, most individuals with an average risk of colorectal cancer said they would prefer a stool-based screening test for colorectal cancer over colonoscopy, the method most often recommended by health care providers.
Higher mushroom consumption is associated with a lower risk of cancer, according to a new study. The systematic review and meta-analysis examined 17 cancer studies published from 1966 to 2020. Analyzing data from more than 19,500 cancer patients, researchers explored the relationship between mushroom consumption and cancer risk.
A chemist has found a way to synthesize a compound to fight a previously ‘undruggable’ cancer protein with benefits across a myriad of cancer types.
Using a widely known field of mathematics designed mainly to study how digital and other forms of information are measured, stored and shared, scientists say they have uncovered a likely key genetic culprit in the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).