Bauchspeicheldrüsen-Tumore aus dem Labor: Organoide helfen, die Krebsentstehung zu verstehen

Für die Krebsforschung haben Ulmer Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler Bauchspeicheldrüsen-Organoide im Labor gezüchtet. Anhand dieser Modelle aus Stammzellen wollen die Forschenden die Entstehung von Bauchspeicheldrüsenkrebs nachvollziehen. Dadurch erhoffen sie sich neue, patientenspezifische Behandlungsansätze. Zudem könnten diese „duktalen Pankreas-Organoide“ dabei helfen, Tierversuche in der Krebsforschung zu reduzieren. Die aktuelle, in Kooperation mit dem Helmholtz Zentrum in München entstandene Publikation wurde im Journal „Cell Stem Cell“ veröffentlicht.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Alzheimer-Modellierung zeigt überraschende Ergebnisse

Der Innsbrucker Molekularbiologe Jerome Mertens und sein Team modellierten erstmals auch die sporadische, nur im Alter auftretende Form von Alzheimer basierend auf Hautzellen von Patient*innen. Die in Cell Stem Cell veröffentlichten Ergebnisse belegen eine Altersabhängigkeit dieser Form der Krankheit und zeigen, dass Alzheimer-Nervenzellen und Krebszellen einiges gemeinsam haben.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

DKMS launches online platform for healthcare professionals

DKMS invites medical and healthcare professionals working in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to visit the newly developed DKMS platform at www.professional.dkms.org. This website gives an overview of the work of all our specialist departments and offers comprehensive insights into the non-profit organization’s scientific studies and publications. Furthermore, it provides access to DKMS’ services, resources, grants and support programs. The site features a modern and streamlined design and makes it easy to access essential information.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Wie Viren das wachsende Gehirn schädigen

Ein Forscherïnnenteam am IMBA – Institut für Molekulare Biotechnologie der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften – erforscht an sogenannten Organoiden, wie manche Viren schwere Fehlbildungen im menschlichen Gehirn auslösen können, mit dem Ziel neue Therapieansätze gegen Infektionen und deren Folgen zu entwickeln. Das berichtet das Team rund um Jürgen Knoblich aktuell im Fachmagazin Cell Stem Cell.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Reactivating Aging Stem Cells in the Brain

As people get older, their neural stem cells lose the ability to proliferate and produce new neurons, leading to a decline in memory function. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now discovered a mechanism linked to stem cell aging – and how the production of neurons can be reactivated.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Uncovering basic mechanisms of intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation

The gut plays a central role in the regulation of the body’s metabolism and its dysfunction is associated with a variety of diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, colitis and colorectal cancer that affect millions of people worldwide. Targeting endocrine dysfunction by stimulating the formation of specific enteroendocrine cells from intestinal stem cells could be a promising regenerative approach for diabetes therapy. For this, a detailed understanding of the intestinal stem cell lineage and the signals regulating the recruitment of intestinal cell types is critical.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Reducing treatment-related complication for blood cancer patients

Researchers published promising findings on preventing a common complication to lifesaving blood stem cell transplantation in leukemia.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Boosting stem cell activity can enhance immunotherapy benefits

Immune-system T cells have been reprogrammed into regenerative stem cell-like memory (TSCM) cells that are long-lived, highly active ‘super immune cells’ with strong antitumor activity, according to new research.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New therapeutic approach against leukemia

Using an RNA molecule complex, researchers can prevent retention of cancer stem cell in their tumor supporting niche.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers make counterintuitive discoveries about immune-like characteristics of cells

Biologists reveal that tissue perturbations by chemotherapy agents promote stem cell expansion and that fibroblast cells exhibit unexpected, immune-like behavior.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New way to halt leukemia relapse shown promising in mice

Drugs tackling chronic myelogenous leukemia have completely transformed prognoses of patients over the last couple of decades, with most cases going into remission. But drug resistance can occur, leading to relapses. Targeting the lipids involved in regulating part of a leukemia stem cell’s life span offers a potential second route to defeat the disease — and solid tumorous cancers as well.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Skin stem cells shuffle sugars as they age

Researchers have shown by in vitro experimentation that changes of glycans in mouse epidermal stem cells may serve as a biomarker of aging. Further, by overexpression of specific glycogenes in mouse keratinocytes, they replicated the glycome profile of aging cells as well as their decreased proliferation ability. These findings hold promise for stem cell research into skin disorders, specifically senile degeneration, wound healing and skin cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New clues from fruit flies about the critical role of sex hormones in stem cell control

In one of the first studies addressing the role of sex hormones’ impact on stem cells in the gut, scientists outline new insights showing how a steroidal sex hormone, ecdysone, drastically alters the way intestinal stem cells behave, ultimately affecting the overarching structure and function of this critical organ.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Order from noise: how randomness and collective dynamics define a stem cell

Without stem cells, human life would not exist. Due to them, a lump of cells becomes an organ, and a fertilized egg develops into a baby. But what actually makes a stem cell? Are these a stable population of specially gifted cells? Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria discovered that instead, stem cells might emerge due to the collective behavior of cells within the organs.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Intestinal health: Dresden research team identifies enzyme essential for stem cell survival

Which pathways govern intestinal epithelial differentiation under constitutive conditions? Epithelial differentiation is largely controlled by the tissue-specific activity of transcription factors. Access to DNA is provided by accessible chromatin (euchromatin), while compacted heterochromatin limits access of transcription factors to DNA. Researchers at the TU Dresden Center for Regenerative Therapies (CRTD) have investigated the significance of the regulation of heterochromatin formation in the intestinal epithelium and published their findings in the renowned international scientific journal Gut.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Image analysis technique provides better understanding of heart cell defects

Many patients with heart disease face limited treatment options. Fortunately, stem cell biology has enabled researchers to produce large numbers of cardiomyocytes, which may be used in drug screens and cell-based therapies. However, current image analysis techniques don’t allow researchers to analyze heterogeneous, multidirectional, striated myofibrils typical of immature cells. Researchers showcase an algorithm that combines gradient methods with fast Fourier transforms to quantify myofibril structures in heart cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Accumulation of gene mutations in chronic Graft-versus-host disease

Mutations in white blood cells can contribute to abnormal immune profile after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Lipid Metabolism Controls Brain Development

A lipid metabolism enzyme controls brain stem cell activity and lifelong brain development. If the enzyme does not work correctly, it causes learning and memory deficits in humans and mice, as researchers at the University of Zurich have discovered. Regulating stem cell activity via lipid metabolism could lead to new treatments for brain diseases.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Stem Cells and Nerves Interact in Tissue Regeneration and Cancer Progression

Researchers at the University of Zurich show that different stem cell populations are innervated in distinct ways. Innervation may therefore be crucial for proper tissue regeneration. They also demonstrate that cancer stem cells likewise establish contacts with nerves. Targeting tumour innervation could thus lead to new cancer therapies.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Cancer cachexia: Extracellular ligand helps to prevent muscle loss

Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic disease accounting for approximately one third of all cancer-related deaths worldwide. So far, there is no effective therapy for this muscle wasting disease. Researchers from the Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI) in Jena, Germany, show that the extracellular ligand Wnt7a effectively counteracts muscle wasting through activation of the anabolic AKT/mTOR pathway and thereby reverts the loss of muscle stem cell functionality and muscle mass. The results have now been published in the journal Molecular Therapy: Oncolytics.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New technique visually depicts how cancer cells grow and spread in colon tissue

Researchers have observed how stem cell mutations quietly arise and spread throughout a widening field of the colon until they eventually predominate and become a malignancy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers discover how cells know their future and forget their past

All cells in the body contain the same genetic material. The difference between cells therefore depends solely on which genes are expressed or ‘turned on’. Now, researchers have gained new insights into how genes are turned on and off and how the cells ”forget their past” while developing into a specific cell in the body. This new knowledge will be crucial for stem cell therapy and potentially treating people with cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Generierung induzierter pluripotenter Stammzellen der Maus gelingt besser ohne Oct4

Die Qualität induzierter pluripotenter Stammzellen wird dramatisch verbessert, wenn man auf den Faktor verzichtet, der bislang als entscheidend galt

Wissenschaftler am Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Biomedizin in Münster haben gezeigt, dass Oct4, ein Faktor, der üblicherweise für die Reprogrammierung verwendet wird, der Qualität der induzierten pluripotenten Stammzellen (iPS-Zellen) abträglich ist. Das Weglassen von Oct4 beim Reprogrammierungscocktail ermöglichte die Generierung von Maus-iPS-Zellen mit dem bislang besten Entwicklungspotenzial (Cell Stem Cell, 7. November 2019, epub vor Druckveröffentlichung).

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells succeeds better without Oct4

Quality of induced pluripotent stem cells is dramatically enhanced by omitting what was thought to be the most crucial reprogramming factor

Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine in Münster showed that Oct4, a factor most commonly used for reprogramming, is detrimental for the quality of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Omitting Oct4 from the reprogramming cocktail allowed for the generation of mouse iPSCs with the highest developmental potential reported to date (Cell Stem Cell, November 7, 2019, epub ahead of print).

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Certain metabolites linked to stem cell function in the intestine

Researchers have found that high levels of ketone bodies, molecules produced by the breakdown of fat, help the intestine to maintain a functional stem cell pool, which are crucial for intestinal regeneration.

Quelle: Sciencedaily