A key element to slowing metastasis in ovarian cancer is understanding the mechanisms of how tumor cells invade tissues. Biophysics researchers explain how microscopic defects in how healthy cells line up can alter how easily ovarian cancer cells invade tissue. Using an experimental model, the group found that disruptions in the normal cellular layout, called topological defects, affect the rate of tumor cell invasion.
In an attempt to find out why the long-term outcomes are poorer for patients with lobular breast cancer — which affects some 40,000 women a year — researchers began looking at the role of the protein MDC1 in tumor cells.
New research has uncovered an essential mechanism coordinating the processes of cell division and adhesion within humans. This discovery has profound potential for advancing understanding of cell adhesion signalling in cancerous tumor progression and metastasis.
A new technology for cellular immunotherapy showed promising anti-tumor activity in the lab against hard-to-treat cancers driven by the once-considered “undruggable” KRAS mutation, including lung, colorectal, and pancreatic.
Researchers shrunk a deadly glioblastoma tumor by more than a third using a helmet generating a noninvasive oscillating magnetic field that the patient wore on his head while administering the therapy in his own home. The 53-year-old patient died from an unrelated injury about a month into the treatment, but during that short time, 31% of the tumor mass disappeared. The autopsy of his brain confirmed the rapid response to the treatment.
An innovative testing platform that more closely mimics what cancer encounters in the body may allow for more precise, personalized therapies by enabling the rapid study of multiple therapeutic combinations against tumor cells. The platform uses a three-dimensional environment to more closely mirror a tumor microenvironment.
A preclinical study offers hope for treatment of uveal melanoma, a rare and deadly cancer of the eye. A small molecule inhibitor has been identified that dampens the potent drivers of this tumor. In mouse models, the inhibitor strongly limited primary disease in the eye and metastatic tumor dissemination to the liver, and animals survived longer, without overt side effects.
Approximately 15% of lung cancer tumors are caused by a mutation in a growth receptor called EGFR. An effective drug can kill most of the cancer cells, but the tumor eventually grows back. Researchers investigated the molecular mechanisms behind this relapse. They discovered that some of the cells were resistant to the EGFR treatment; they survived using a parallel pathway.
Combining chemotherapy with a BRAF oncogene inhibitor proves effective at treating this disease in a mouse model. This alternative paves the way toward a new approach for patients affected by this type of tumor, which has no cure in the most advanced stages or cases of relapse.
Anti-androgen therapy is commonly used to treat patients with advanced prostate cancer at stages where the disease has spread to the bones. However, new research has found that anti-androgen treatment can actually facilitate prostate cancer cells to adapt and grow in the bone tumor microenvironment model developed by biomedical scientists.
Researchers have discovered lymph node-like structures close to the tumor in brain cancer patients, where immune cells can be activated to attack the tumor. They also found that immunotherapy enhanced the formation of these structures in a mouse model. This discovery suggests new opportunities to regulate the anti-tumor response of the immune system.
Immunotherapy has revolutionized the field of cancer treatment. However, inflammatory reactions in healthy tissues frequently trigger side effects that can be serious. Scientists have succeeded in establishing the differences between deleterious immune reactions and those targeting tumor cells that are sought after. It appears that while the immune mechanisms are similar, the cell populations involved are different. This work makes it possible to envisage targeted and less dangerous treatments for cancer patients.
Scientists have discovered stem cells of the hematopoietic system in glioblastomas, the most aggressive form of brain tumor. These hematopoietic stem cells promote division of the cancer cells and at the same time suppress the immune response against the tumor. This surprising discovery might open up new possibilities for developing more effective immunotherapies against these malignant brain tumors.
The prognosis and effective therapies differ based on the type of lung cancer. While it previously took several days to precisely determine the underlying mutation, a research team has been able to reliably perform this determination in just one step using a combination of quantum cascade laser-based infrared microscopy and artificial intelligence.
Scientists have gained novel insights into how an important class of immune receptors called tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR) are activated.
Many people don’t realize that the trillions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi residing within the gastrointestinal tract –collectively called the gut microbiome — are connected to overall health, and specifically to cancer.
3D tumors that disintegrate within a few days thanks to the action of a well-known omega-3 (DHA, found mainly in fish) — this is a promising discovery. Hungry for fatty acids, tumor cells in acidosis gorge themselves on DHA but are unable to store it correctly and literally poison themselves. The result? They die.
A new discovery in Ewing sarcoma, an aggressive and often fatal childhood cancer, has uncovered the potential to prevent cancer cells from spreading beyond their primary tumour site. Researchers have learned that Ewing sarcoma cells — and likely other types of cancer cells — are able to develop a shield that protects them from the harsh environment of the bloodstream and other locations as they search for a new place to settle, or metastasize.
Hirntumorzellen, die eine bestimmte, häufige Mutation tragen, programmieren einwandernde Immunzellen um und lähmen dadurch im Gehirn die körpereigene Abwehr gegen den Tumor. Das entdeckten Wissenschaftler aus Heidelberg, Mannheim und Freiburg und fanden gleichzeitig einen Weg, wie sie das lahmgelegte Immunsystem wieder gegen den Tumor aktivieren können. Diese Ergebnisse bestätigen, dass therapeutische Impfungen oder Immuntherapien gegen Hirntumoren besser wirken, wenn gleichzeitig das unterdrückte Immunsystem mit Wirkstoffen unterstützt wird.
Cells from different parts of kidney tumors behave differently, and surprisingly, cells within the center of a tumor are the most aggressive and have the highest chance of spreading around the body.
Eine neue Technologie von UZH-Forschenden ermöglicht dem Körper, therapeutische Wirk-stoffe auf Abruf an genau der Stelle herzustellen, an der sie benötigt werden. Die Innovation könnte die Nebenwirkungen einer Krebstherapie reduzieren und dabei helfen, Covid-Behandlungen besser in die Lunge zu verabreichen.
A new technology developed by UZH researchers enables the body to produce therapeutic agents on demand at the exact location where they are needed. The innovation could re-duce the side effects of cancer therapy and may hold the solution to better delivery of Covid-related therapies directly to the lungs.
Researchers have discovered a new role for the DHODH enzyme in blocking a form of cell death called ferroptosis. Preclinical findings suggest that targeting DHODH could restore cell death and inhibit tumor growth.
More than two-thirds of pancreatic cancer patients harboring genetic mutations saw their tumor stop growing or shrink substantially after being switched from intensive chemotherapy to the PARP inhibitor rucaparib as a maintenance therapy.