Systematically examining the way spatial structure influences the evolution of cancer

Characterizing the way, manner or pattern of evolution in tumors may be important for clinical forecasting and optimizing cancer treatment. Researchers are systematically examining how spatial structure influences tumor evolution. To do this the group developed a computational model with the flexibility to simulate alternative spatial structures and types of cell dispersal.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Lymphoma: Key signaling pathway involved in tumor formation identified

There are myriad reasons why cancers develop. By studying genes which are altered in people with lymphoma, a multidisciplinary team of researchers has identified a key mechanism involved in disease development. This signaling pathway, which the researchers describe in detail, controls the repair of DNA damage.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New findings may contribute to better diagnosis and treatment of liver cancer

In a new study, researchers have identified the presence of a specific connection between a protein and an lncRNA molecule in liver cancer. By increasing the presence of the lncRNA molecule, the fat depots of the tumor cell decrease, which causes the division of tumor cells to cease, and they eventually die. The study contributes to increased knowledge that can add to a better diagnosis and future cancer treatments.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers reduce breast cancer metastasis in animal models by modifying tumor electrical properties

Researchers have found that manipulating voltage patterns of tumor cells — using ion channel blockers already FDA-approved as treatments for other diseases — can in fact significantly reduce metastasis in animal models of breast cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

CBD reduces glioblastoma’s size, supportive environment in experimental model

Inhaled CBD shrinks the size of the highly aggressive, lethal brain tumor glioblastoma in an animal model by reducing the essential support of its microenvironment, researchers report.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Boosting anti-cancer action by driving up immunity at tumor site

Driving up the immune response at the site of a cancer tumor with nanotechnology may help enhance immunotherapy treatments in advanced stages of the disease, new research in mice suggests.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and artificial intelligence (AI) can detect early signs of tumor cell death after novel therapy

A recent study demonstrates that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and artificial intelligence (AI) can be used to detect early signs of tumor cell death in response to a novel virus-based cancer therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Parallels in human, dog oral tumors could speed new therapies

Recent research compared the genetic expression profiles of a nonlethal canine tumor and the rare, devastating human oral tumor it resembles, laying the groundwork for potential translational medicine down the road.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Special GSI expertise: Review text discusses current status and challenges of heavy ion therapy

Which are the best applications for tumor therapy with charged particles to realize its great potential for the future? In which cases can it be used most effectively? These aspects belong to the most exciting questions in radiation biology and medical physics. A group of top-class experts now evaluated and summarized the state-of-the-art of heavy ion radiotherapy and presented a review article in the world-renowned online journal „Nature Reviews“. Main author of the text with the title „Physics and biomedical challenges of cancer therapy with accelerated heavy ions“ is Professor Marco Durante, Head of the GSI Biophysics Research Department.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Noninvasive brain biopsy shows improved sensitivity in tumor detection

A team of researchers has developed a noninvasive diagnostic method that may one day replace the biopsy with a simple blood test.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The subtle difference: Pancreatic tumor organoids pave the way for single-cell diagnostics

The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is usually grim: The tumors are often detected too late and are then difficult to treat. Yet a small percentage of patients survive many years after diagnosis. Scientists from the Berlin Institute of Health at Charité (BIH) have now grown organoids from various pancreatic tumors in the laboratory, which they used to identify individual cell types and test the effects of various drugs. This enables patient-specific diagnostics and opens up the possibility of targeted therapy. The researchers have now published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

New strategy against treatment-resistant prostate cancer identified

A new study has identified an RNA molecule that suppresses prostate tumors. The scientists found that prostate cancers develop ways to shut down this RNA molecule to allow themselves to grow. According to the new research — conducted in mice implanted with human prostate tumor samples — restoring this so-called long noncoding RNA could be a new strategy to treat prostate cancer that has developed resistance to hormonal therapies.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Experimental drug boosts immunotherapy effectiveness in pancreatic cancer in mice

An experimental drug enhanced the benefit of an immunotherapy to fight pancreatic cancer in mice by increasing the number of immune cells in the immediate vicinity of the tumor, leading to a reduction in tumor growth, and in some mice, eliminating their cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers develop a new class of CAR-T cells that target previously untargetable cancer drivers

In a breakthrough for the treatment of aggressive solid cancers, researchers have developed a novel cancer therapy that targets proteins inside cancer cells that are essential for tumor growth and survival but have been historically impossible to reach. Using the power of large data sets and advanced computational approaches, the researchers were able to identify peptides that are presented on the surface of tumor cells and can be targeted with ‚peptide-centric‘ chimeric antigen receptors (PC-CARs), a new class of engineered T cells, stimulating an immune response that eradicates tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Metabolic memory plays a key role in breast cancer relapse

Molecular targets for therapies that could prevent breast cancer recurrence have been identified by a group of scientists who analyzed tumor cells that proved resistant to the original treatment. Recent advances in early detection and targeted therapy have led to a growing success in treating breast cancer upon first presentation. This often is achieved by silencing tumor driving oncogenes and causing tumor regression.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Under arrest: Using nanofibers to stop brain tumor cells from spreading

Researchers have used high-density nanofibers that mimic the microenvironment of the brain to capture tumor cells, opening doors to novel therapeutic solutions for aggressive brain cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New way to find cancer at the nanometer scale

Researchers describe a new liquid biopsy method using lab-on-a-chip technology that they believe can detect cancer before a tumor is even formed. Using magnetic particles coated in a specially designed bonding agent, the liquid biopsy chip attracts and captures particles containing cancer-causing biomarkers. A close analysis can identify the type of cancer they are carrying. This, the researchers say, can significantly improve cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Molecular atlas of small cell lung cancer reveals unusual cell type that could explain why it’s so aggressive

Stem-like cells that make up only a tiny fraction of the total cells in a lung tumor could be the key to stopping the disease’s deadly spread, say researchers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Fluorescent spray lights up tumors for easy detection during surgery

The prognosis for a cancer patient who undergoes surgery is better if the surgeon removes all of the tumor, but it can be hard to tell where a tumor ends and healthy tissue begins. Now, scientists report that they have developed a fluorescent spray that specifically lights up cancerous tissue so it can be identified readily and removed during surgery.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Break through the tumor’s protective shield

The immune system protects the body from cancer. To protect healthy body cells from its own immune system, they have developed a protective shield: the protein CD47 is a so called ‚don’t eat me‘ signal, which tells the immune cells to stand back. Tumor cells exploit this CD47-based protection strategy for evading the immune system, by increasing presentation of CD47 on their cell surface. A team has now developed a therapy concept for programming the tumor cells to produce on their own a CD47-blocking and immune-activation fusion protein. This therapy approach could stop tumor growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Common diabetes drug promising against rare childhood brain tumor in laboratory studies

Metformin, a drug commonly prescribed against diabetes, holds promise against a rare type of childhood brain tumor in laboratory studies, an international team of researchers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Super-enhancers: The villain fueling certain cancers

Researchers identified a small RNA molecule called miR-766-5p that reduces expression of MYC, a critical cancer-promoting gene. This microRNA reduces levels of proteins CBP and BRD4, which are both involved in super-enhancer (SE) formation. SEs form in areas of DNA that can fuel MYC expression and tumor progression. This study provides strong evidence for developing miR-766-5p as a novel therapeutic to treat MYC-driven cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The immune system’s double agents

A new study examined the development of a glioblastoma cancerous tumor in animal models with a normal immune system, in order to best simulate the development of the tumor in humans.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cell labelling method from microscopy adapted for use in whole-body imaging

Scientist have utilized so-called SNAP-tag technology to radioactively label cells in living organisms. In a proof-of-principle study they developed a SNAP-tag substrate equipped with the radioactive signal emitter fluorine-18 and used it to make tumor cells in the bodies of mice visible in PET images. The labeling method, already established in microscopy, opens up the prospect of studying cells with different imaging techniques and at different temporal stages — for example, when inflammation begins, continues and resolves again. This may help reveal more about how the functions of individual cells and entire organs are interconnected.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Counting cells may shed light on how cancer spreads

Engineers developed a technique that allows them to measure the generation rate and half-life of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in mice.

Quelle: Sciencedaily