Ausgezeichnete Tumorforschung

Wie aggressiv ist ein Tumor oder wie gut wird er auf eine bestimmte Therapieform ansprechen? Das erforscht Radiologe Dr. Jazan Omari und wird dafür mit dem Nachwuchsforschungspreis der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Magdeburg ausgezeichnet.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Engineering T cells to attack cancer broadly

This study builds on decades of work showing that the protein IL-24 attacks cancer broadly, and is the first to deliver the protein using T cells. This approach is in contrast to CAR-T cells, which are built to recognize proteins on the surface of cancer cells and haven’t been successful against solid tumors. Mice with prostate cancer experienced shrinkage of the original tumor as well as distant metastases following treatment with IL-24 T cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A new method for fighting ‘cold’ tumors

Researchers address cold tumors in new research. Working with mouse models of head and neck cancers, researchers studied the role of T cells in tumor treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel immunotherapy approach to fight melanoma

Researchers have advanced a tumor-targeting and cell penetrating antibody that can deliver payloads to stimulate an immune response to help treat melanoma.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers discover new way to starve brain tumors

Scientists have found a new way to starve cancerous brain tumor cells of energy in order to prevent further growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Immune-stimulating drug before surgery shows promise in early-stage pancreatic cancer

Giving early-stage pancreatic cancer patients a CD40 immune-stimulating drug helped jumpstart a T cell attack to the notoriously stubborn tumor microenvironment before surgery and other treatments, according to a new study.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Blocking a protein could help overcome cancer resistance to PARP inhibitors

Researchers have found that blocking a specific protein could increase tumor sensitivity to treatment with PARP inhibitors. Their work suggests combining treatments could lead to improved therapy for patients with inheritable breast cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A drug that can stop tumors from growing

Scientists detail new work on NLRP3, an intracellular complex that has been found to participate in melanoma-mediated inflammation, leading to tumor growth and progression. By inhibiting NLRP3, the researchers found, they can reduce inflammation and the resultant tumor expansion.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Novel hydrogel carriers for anti-cancer drugs offer new hope for cancer treatment

Hydrogels are often used as drug delivery systems, but to be effective carriers for anti-cancer drugs, they need to be responsive to varied stimuli in the tumor microenvironment. Now, scientists have developed novel hydrogels to effectively deliver drugs to tumor sites in response to temperature and pH changes in the tumor microenvironment. These multi-stimuli-responsive hydrogels can eliminate remnant cancer cells following tumor excision through controlled drug release, offering hope for effective cancer treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Why some cancer drugs may be ineffective

A possible explanation for why many cancer drugs that kill tumor cells in mouse models won’t work in human trials has been found.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

A clue to how some fast-growing tumors hide in plain sight

Viruses churn out genetic material in parts of the cell where it’s not supposed to be. Cancer cells do too. A new study shows that a tumor-suppressor enzyme called DAPK3 is an essential component of a multi-protein system that senses misplaced genetic material in tumor cells, and slows tumor growth by activating the fierce-sounding STING pathway.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Bestimmte kindliche Tumoren entstehen bereits früh in der Schwangerschaft

Neuroblastome gehören zu den häufigsten soliden Tumoren bei Kindern und bilden sich schon vor ihrer Geburt. Bei Hochrisikopatienten sorgen bestimmte genetische Programme bereits während der Schwangerschaft im Embryo dafür, dass Vorläuferzellen sich zu Krebszellen statt zu reifen Nervenzellen entwickeln. Das zeigt eine neue Studie von Wissenschaftlern des KiTZ, des DKFZ und der Universität Heidelberg. Ein enges, aber sehr kritisches Zeitfenster während der Entwicklung des Embryos entscheidet auch darüber, ob der Tumor spontan ausheilt oder einen ungünstigen Verlauf nimmt. Das Team konnte außerdem erstmals den Ursprung der Neuroblastomzellen im Menschen zeigen.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Bacteria may aid anti-cancer immune response

Cancer immunotherapy may get a boost from an unexpected direction: bacteria residing within tumor cells. Researchers have discovered that the immune system “sees” these bacteria and shown they can be harnessed to provoke an immune reaction against the tumor. The study may also help clarify the connection between immunotherapy and the gut microbiome, explaining the findings of previous research that the microbiome affects the success of immunotherapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Scientists shrink pancreatic tumors by starving their cellular ‘neighbors’

Scientists have demonstrated that blocking ‘cell drinking,’ or macropinocytosis, in the thick tissue surrounding a pancreatic tumor slowed tumor growth–providing more evidence that macropinocytosis is a driver of pancreatic cancer growth and is an important therapeutic target.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Embryonic tissue undergoes phase transition

When scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria looked at developing zebrafish embryos, they observed an abrupt and dramatic change: within just a few minutes, the solid-like embryonic tissue becomes fluid-like. What could cause this change and, what is its role in the further development of the embryo? In a multidisciplinary study published in the journal Cell, they found answers that could change how we look at key processes in development and disease, such as tumor metastasis.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Therapy sneaks into hard layer of pancreatic cancer tumor and destroys it from within

Researchers demonstrated that a new tumor-penetrating therapy could enhance the effects of chemotherapy, reduce the spread of pancreatic cancer and increase survival in animal models.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Predicting success in therapy with individualized cancer models

Scientists have established organoid culture models from prostate tumor biopsies. These are small clusters of cells which can be used to test the efficacy of various drugs. In this way, it is possible to test which treatment will most likely benefit individual patients.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New inhibitor found to combat drug-resistant cancer cells

A new substance could improve the treatment of persistent cancers. Researchers have developed a new inhibitor that makes drug-resistant tumor cells respond again to chemotherapy. The new substance blocks a protein in the cancer cells that normally transports the cancer drugs back out of the cells.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cancer ‘guardian’ breaks bad with one switch

A mutation that replaces a single amino acid in a potent tumor-suppressing protein makes it prone to nucleating amyloid fibrils implicated in many cancers as well as neurological diseases.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Mit zwei Virusarten gegen Tumore

Eine internationale Forschungsgruppe unter Leitung der Universität Basel hat eine vielversprechende Strategie für therapeutische Krebsimpfungen entwickelt. Mit zwei unterschiedlichen Viren als Vehikel verabreichten sie im Tierversuch krebskranken Mäusen spezifische Tumorbestandteile und regten damit ihr Immunsystem an, den Tumor anzugreifen. Der Ansatz wird nun in klinischen Studien getestet.

Quelle: IDW Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Velcro-like cellular proteins key to tissue strength

Where do bodily tissues get their strength? New research provides important new clues to this long-standing mystery, identifying how specialized proteins called cadherins join forces to make cells stick — and stay stuck — together. The findings could lead to more life-like artificial tissues and tumor busting drugs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Sulfur metabolism may have paved the way for evolution of multicellularity

When the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum runs out of food, sulfur limitation drives its development from a unicellular to a multicellular organism. Researchers now present the nutrient signaling pathways in this early eukaryote in great detail. Their results show how metabolism may have played a crucial role in the origins of multicellularity. Moreover, the findings also have therapeutic implications for more complex organisms such as humans. Targeting sulfur metabolism in cancer cells may enhance anti-tumor immunity.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Turbocharging the killing power of immune cells against cancer

Creating ‘super soldiers’ of specific white blood cells to boost an anti-tumor response has been shown in a series of elegant experiments.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Combination therapy suppresses pancreatic tumor growth in mice

Researchers have uncovered a potential new way to target pancreatic tumors that express high intratumoral interferon signaling (IFN).

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Combination treatment for common glioma type shows promise in mice

Gliomas are common brain tumors that comprise about one third of all cancers of the nervous system. Researchers tested a novel combination treatment approach on mice with tumors with characteristics similar to human astrocytomas and found tumor regression in 60 percent of the mice treated. These encouraging results could be the first step toward developing a treatment for this type of brain cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily