Under arrest: Using nanofibers to stop brain tumor cells from spreading

Researchers have used high-density nanofibers that mimic the microenvironment of the brain to capture tumor cells, opening doors to novel therapeutic solutions for aggressive brain cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

New way to find cancer at the nanometer scale

Researchers describe a new liquid biopsy method using lab-on-a-chip technology that they believe can detect cancer before a tumor is even formed. Using magnetic particles coated in a specially designed bonding agent, the liquid biopsy chip attracts and captures particles containing cancer-causing biomarkers. A close analysis can identify the type of cancer they are carrying. This, the researchers say, can significantly improve cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Molecular atlas of small cell lung cancer reveals unusual cell type that could explain why it’s so aggressive

Stem-like cells that make up only a tiny fraction of the total cells in a lung tumor could be the key to stopping the disease’s deadly spread, say researchers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Fluorescent spray lights up tumors for easy detection during surgery

The prognosis for a cancer patient who undergoes surgery is better if the surgeon removes all of the tumor, but it can be hard to tell where a tumor ends and healthy tissue begins. Now, scientists report that they have developed a fluorescent spray that specifically lights up cancerous tissue so it can be identified readily and removed during surgery.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Break through the tumor’s protective shield

The immune system protects the body from cancer. To protect healthy body cells from its own immune system, they have developed a protective shield: the protein CD47 is a so called ‚don’t eat me‘ signal, which tells the immune cells to stand back. Tumor cells exploit this CD47-based protection strategy for evading the immune system, by increasing presentation of CD47 on their cell surface. A team has now developed a therapy concept for programming the tumor cells to produce on their own a CD47-blocking and immune-activation fusion protein. This therapy approach could stop tumor growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Common diabetes drug promising against rare childhood brain tumor in laboratory studies

Metformin, a drug commonly prescribed against diabetes, holds promise against a rare type of childhood brain tumor in laboratory studies, an international team of researchers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Super-enhancers: The villain fueling certain cancers

Researchers identified a small RNA molecule called miR-766-5p that reduces expression of MYC, a critical cancer-promoting gene. This microRNA reduces levels of proteins CBP and BRD4, which are both involved in super-enhancer (SE) formation. SEs form in areas of DNA that can fuel MYC expression and tumor progression. This study provides strong evidence for developing miR-766-5p as a novel therapeutic to treat MYC-driven cancers.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

The immune system’s double agents

A new study examined the development of a glioblastoma cancerous tumor in animal models with a normal immune system, in order to best simulate the development of the tumor in humans.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Cell labelling method from microscopy adapted for use in whole-body imaging

Scientist have utilized so-called SNAP-tag technology to radioactively label cells in living organisms. In a proof-of-principle study they developed a SNAP-tag substrate equipped with the radioactive signal emitter fluorine-18 and used it to make tumor cells in the bodies of mice visible in PET images. The labeling method, already established in microscopy, opens up the prospect of studying cells with different imaging techniques and at different temporal stages — for example, when inflammation begins, continues and resolves again. This may help reveal more about how the functions of individual cells and entire organs are interconnected.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Counting cells may shed light on how cancer spreads

Engineers developed a technique that allows them to measure the generation rate and half-life of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in mice.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Targeting a rare secondary cancer in children

Known as pediatric radiation-induced high-grade gliomas (RIGs), this specific type of brain tumor is caused by cranial radiation therapy for other cancers, most often brain cancers. They account for nearly 4% of all childhood brain tumor deaths, but there have not been many studies on RIGs and how to treat them.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Lab grown tumor models could improve treatment for pancreatic cancer

An international team of scientists have created a three-dimensional (3D) pancreatic cancer tumour model in the laboratory, combining a bioengineered matrix and patient-derived cells that could be used to develop and test targeted treatments.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Breast cancers: Ruptures in cell nuclei promotes tumor invasion

When cells multiply and migrate, they can be compressed and their nucleus may break open. This phenomenon causes DNA damage. Scientists have now shown that this facilitates the spread of cancer cells in breast tumors.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Tumor im Würgegriff

Eine fast dreitausendfach vergrößerte und nachträglich eingefärbte Tumorzelle, die  von  vier  zytotoxischen T-Zellen attackiert wird

Antikörper sind die zielgerichteten Waffen des Immunsystems im Kampf gegen Viren – und immer mehr auch in der Krebsmedizin. Dabei hilft es, dass sich die Naturmoleküle künstlich hochrüsten lassen und die Waffensysteme vernetzen können.

Quelle: FAZ.NET

Link between inflammation and pancreatic cancer development uncovered

A new study finds that pancreatic cells display an adaptive response to repeated inflammation that initially protects against tissue damage but can promote tumor formation in the presence of mutant KRAS.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Free radicals linked to heart damage caused by cancer

A new study in animal models shows that the presence of a cancer tumor alone can lead to cardiac damage, and suggests the culprits are molecules called free radicals interacting with specific cells in the heart. Adding specific types of antioxidants to food consumed by fruit flies with tumors reversed the damage to their hearts — a finding suggesting that harm caused by free radicals was the likely link between cancer and cardiac dysfunction.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Liquid biopsies may aid diagnosis, treatment of bladder, nerve tumors

Two recent studies describe the potential of liquid biopsies to identify and track tumor growth in two very different cancers: bladder cancer and peripheral nerve tumors. Despite the differences between these cancers and their associated biopsies, the studies demonstrate the possible benefits of this relatively new tool in the fight against cancer.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Widespread tumor suppression mechanism stops cancer progression by interfering with cancer cell metabolism

A Wistar study shows the tumor suppressor Parkin, whose levels are reduced in different cancer types, causes acute metabolic and oxidative stress, suppresses mitochondrial trafficking, and blocks tumor cell movement, reducing primary and metastatic tumor growth.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Teaching an old dog new tricks: An existing drug opens new possibilities for treating childhood leukemia

A new study has shown that the tumor-inhibiting gene TET2 is silenced in a large fraction of cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. The scientists show that the gene can be reactivated by treatment with an existing drug, 5-azacytidine. The results suggest that 5-azacytidine may function as targeted therapy for ALL in children.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

PULSAR-integrated radiotherapy with immunotherapy for improved tumor control

Cancer physicians are pioneering a new PULSAR radiation-therapy strategy that improves tumor control compared with traditional daily therapy.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers bioprint an entire active glioblastoma tumor using a 3D printer

The 3D print of glioblastoma — the deadliest type of brain cancer — is printed from human glioblastoma tissues containing all components of the malignant tumor. Researchers say the breakthrough will enable much faster prediction of best treatments for patients, accelerate the development of new drugs and discovery of new druggable targets.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Heat-controllable CAR T cells destroy tumors and prevent relapse in new study

New research builds on a body of work exploring remotely controlled cell therapies, in which the researchers can precisely target tumors, wherever they are in the body, with a local deposition of heat. The latest study shows the system cured cancer in mice, and the team’s approach not only shrunk tumors but prevented relapse — critical for long-term survival. Further studies will delve into additional tailoring of T-cells, as well as how heat will be deposited at the tumor site.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Researchers pinpoint how PARP inhibitors combat BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor cells

PARP inhibitors, used to treat patients with cancer of the breast, ovaries, prostate and pancreas, work by inducing persistent DNA gaps in tumor cells with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The discovery offers the potential to monitor tumors for the development of resistance to PARP inhibitor therapy, and to identify drug combinations that could prevent drug resistance and improve the efficacy of cancer therapies.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

‘Frameshifting’ therapy for mast cell cancers reduces size, spread

A potential new treatment for mast cell cancers reduces the number of mast cells by ‚mutating‘ the messenger RNA (mRNA) before it can deliver instructions for manufacturing the gene responsible for cell proliferation. The method, known as frameshifting, changes the pre-mRNA so that the mature mRNA is degraded and any protein produced from its instructions is altered and inert. In a mouse model, frameshifting directed at the c-KIT gene reduced mast cell tumor size and prevented infiltration into other organs.

Quelle: Sciencedaily

Changes in lung tissue indicate preparation for supporting the growth of disseminated breast cancer cells

A new study has revealed changes in healthy lung tissue which indicate preparation to receive metastases. The changes were identified in the area known as ‚the micro-environment‘ of the tumor, and specifically in connective tissue known as fibroblasts.

Quelle: Sciencedaily